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Showing posts from May, 2014

philae temple

graffiti tells us  about the sixth year of the French Republic when the French army led by Bonaparte arrived  in Alexandria and then after twenty day defeated the Mamluks in the famose battle Ahram  and then tell us about Gen. Desics commander of the first division in the army of Bonaparte who chased the Mamelukes even beyond the first  cataract in Aswan and until he reached philae and left this graffiti
it  is written on 3 March 1799 and is the seventh year of the French Republic the text show us the name of the French sculptor  who engraved on the walls of the temple and named Kastics















philae temple

this graffiti was done  by scientists and the French militarians accompanying General Desaix of the walls of the Temple of Philae.
 the graffiti begins with the letters RF an abbreviation of the French Republic and then AN 7 means the seventh year , and the names of some of the scholars of the French campaign who arrived to philae in 1799 , including Balzac and Costaz
in another graffito Fun fact locate philae lines of latitude and longitude , we note that the calculation of the meridians at this time was calculated dimension for the City of Paris and not to keep away from the suburb of London Greenwich , which has been considered the prime meridian and the standard zero starting in 1883 ,

 at the top of graffiti  two  letters MK and were the first two letters in the names of  the most important generals of the French campaign  Mino and Clipper hunters who succeeded Bonaparte
Clipper  was killed by Suleiman al-Halabi in Cairo , one of Strasbourg in France and secondly Mino , who gave …

The west Bank of Luxor

US authorities return eight stolen ancient Egyptian artifacts

US authorities agreed to return eight ancient Egyptian artifacts stolen and illegally smuggled out of the country.

Today, upon his arrival from the United States, Minister of Antiquities Mohamed Ibrahim announced that US authorities agreed to return eight ancient Egyptian artefacts stolen and illegally smuggled out of the country.
The objects are to arrive next month.

The pieces include the upper part of a painted anthropoid wooden sarcophagus from the Third Intermediate period depicting a face of a woman wearing a wig decorated with coloured flowers.

Two linen mummy wrappings covered with plaster and bearing paintings showing winged amulets pushing the sun disc are also among the artefacts.

Hieroglyphic text showing the name and titles of the deceased are also found on the plaster cover.

The third piece is a cartonage painted mummy mask from the Third Intermediate period while the fourth and fifth items are Middle Kingdom wooden boats.

The other three items are limestone…

The Name of Nero in Dendara temple

In the early years of Nero's reign he is guided by wise counselors, particularly his old tutor Seneca. But soon he feels free to follow his own inclinations. Within a few years his riotous personal behavior is deeply offending the Romans, who are also unimpressed by his insistence on performing in public - as charioteer, lute-player, poet and actor.

The murder in AD 55 of his young stepbrother Britannicus is hardly surprising in the context of the time; the boy is inevitably a threat as the son of the previous emperor. More unusual are the deaths of Nero's mother and wife.

In 58 Nero falls passionately in love with a married woman, Poppaea, the wife ofOtho. Agrippina criticizes her son's liaison and is murdered in 59. Octavia, as his wife, is an unfortunate impediment; Nero divorces her, on a false charge of adultery, and then has her killed. He marries Poppaea in 62.

Nero becomes so unpopular that many believe he started the greatFire of Romein 64, so as to give himself the…

Book of the Earth

It is the seventh scene of the book of the earth, the name is "he who hides the hours". a usual decoration of tombs, starting in the 20th dynasty. The 12 goddesses on both sides represent the hours. The small figure in front of his legs is a god named "the bloody". The dark frame around this scene is a snake. The hieroglyphic text belonging to this scene is "That it is, what this God is like, The big snake, the striped snake is around him

The last hieroglyphic inscriptions, written in 394 CE

Worship was continued on the island of Philae into the 6th century CE, and both the last hieroglyphic inscriptions, written in 394 CE, and the last demotic inscriptions, from 452 CE, are also found there. One reason that Philae was able to continue the ancient Egyptian religion well into the Christian Era of Egyptian history was due to its location far into Upper Egypt near the southern border, where it became a haven for the faithful.

The ancient Egyptians loved Cats

When ‘ta-mit’,  beloved cat died, he had her buried in this stone coffin, featuring a picture of his pet before an offering table of food and flowers.

Thutmose fully expected to meet his cat again in the Afterlife and various gods are called on to protect her.

The horus Name of king Ramsis the second

Ancient Egyptians used wet sand to drag massive pyramid stones,

Wall painting from the tomb of Djehutihotep. A large statue is being transported by sledge. A person standing on the front of the sledge wets the sand.

one question that long puzzled me is how Egyptians managed to move those colossal pyramid stones – some of which weigh several tons.

the ancient Egyptians used a clever trick to make it easier to transport heavy pyramid stones by sledge. The Egyptians moistened the sand over which the sledge moved.the stones were dragged over wet sand
Experiments have demonstrated that the correct amount of dampness in the sand halves the pulling force required.

"When the sand was dry, a heap of sand formed in front of the sled, hindering its movement; a relatively high force was needed for the sled to reach a steady state. Adding water made the sand more rigid, and the heaps decreased in size until no heap formed in front of the moving sled and therefore a lower applied force was needed to reach a steady state

The picture on the right was …

New tomb Discovered Today

Pre-Dynastic tomb discovered in Edfu in the site of Nekhen or Hierakonpolis.
The tomb dates back to 3650 BC.
The tomb is in Kom Al Ahmar A mummy of the tomb owner and an ivory statue were found by the mission directed by Dr. Renée Friedman in cooperation with the Ministry of Antiquities.
the mummified person died at early age between 17 to 20 years old.
also 10 ivory combs found in the tomb as well as a number of tools and weapons.
the importance of this tomb that it still has its content which gives archaeologists the opportunity to know more on the rituals of this era. It also shows how much respect and appreciation they had in Pre-Dynastic time for their ancestors.

Hanging Church, Cairo

Known in Arabic as al-Muallaqah ("The Suspended"), the Hanging Church is the most famous Coptic church in Cairo. The church is dedicated to the Virgin Mary and is thus also known as Sitt Mariam or St. Mary's Church.
The Hanging Church is named for its location above a gatehouse of the Roman fortress in Old Cairo; its nave is suspended over a passage. The church is approached by 29 steps; early travelers to Cairo dubbed it "the Staircase Church."

History The Hanging Church was built in the 7th century, probably on the site of a 3rd or 4th century church for the soldiers of the bastion. It has been rebuilt several times since then, including a major rebuild under Patriarch Abraham in the 10th century.
By the 11th century, the Hanging Church became the official residence of the Coptic patriarchs of Alexandria and several Coptic synods were held in the church. The main furnishings - the pulpit and screens - date from the 13th century.

What to See Entrance…

Ben Ezra Synagogue - Cairo

The Ben Ezra Synagogue in Cairo is located behind the Hanging Church and was once a church itself.
The Ben Ezra Synagogue was originally a Christian church, which the Coptic Christians of Cairo had to sell to the Jews in 882 AD in order to pay the annual taxes imposed by the Muslim rulers of the time. The church was purchased by Abraham Ben Ezra, who came from Jerusalem during the reign of Ahmed Ibn Tulun, for 20,000 dinars.

The synagogue was a place of pilgrimage for North African Jews and the site of major festival celebrations. The famous medieval rabbi Moses Maimonides worshipped at Ben Ezra synagogue when he lived in Cairo.
Numerous restorations and renovations were made over the centuries, and the present building dates from 1892. It is a faithful reconstruction of the original, which had collapsed. During the reconstruction, a medieval Geniza (a hiding place for sacred books and worn-out Torah scrolls) was discovered, revealing thousands of original documents fro…