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Showing posts from January 21, 2013

karnak

the king is wearing the blue helmet and a long coat. He stands before the barque of Amun, which terminates with a ram's head crowned with a disk, spraying incense. The barque is supported by a stretcher that is carried on the shoulders of three groups of five falcon-headed figures in the front and thirteen jackal-headed figures in the back. These are the spirits of Pe and Nekhen, though some Egyptologists have suggested that these are real priests wearing jackal and sparrow hawk masks, a notion that has been hotly debated. If indeed priests wore masks in some of the ceremonies, they must be clearly distinguished from the depictions in the sanctuaries where animal headed figures are "functional principles" and certainly not masked officials.
The king facing the b…

the Hypostyle Hall

a scene of bird hunting with nets. The image represents a pool in the midst of a papyrus thicket out of which seven ducks are flying. The net had been open, but on the signal given by Thoth with his scarf, they are now closed over the captured birds. This scene is interesting in that it is repeated in many private tombs, where peasants close the net under the watchful eye of their master. Here, the texts describes Thoth as the "master of the city of Eight" who presides in Hesret at the heart of the "temple of nets". This refers to the sanctuary located in Heliopolis and therefore named in memory of the place where Seth was captured in a net by Horus. Furthermore, Thoth administers the "snaring" operation and it is said that he …

karnak

In the next series of scenes on this wall, in the upper register and clearly defined, we find the king kneeling on the sma symbol. He is flanked by Thoth, master of the city of the Eight (Heliopolis) on the left and Horus, great god, master of Mesen.t. Hence, the king is joining the Two Lands of the North and South "under his feet", and the gods are assuring him of the monarchy. The horizontal bar on which the king is kneeling always indicates a significant measurement.
In the lower register, the barque of Amun is resting in a large naos (of which only a small part of the uraei frieze of the dais can be seen). Before it sits the barques of Khonsu and Mut. All of these wall sculptures are rendered in sunk relief, with the exception of the naos of the barque.

karnak

the Race of the Apis Bull which is often associated with the king's sed festival. This well known ceremony is for the first time found mentioned on the Palermo Stone in regard to several archaic kings, and afterwards, on a cylinder of Horus Den, the fourth king of the 1st Dynasty, we have the first known testimony of the Apis race.During the inauguration of a monument, the sacred bull Hap, at times accompanied the king during his race, as in the image on the second register at this point on the wall. Some inscriptions provide that "the king gives the land four times", implying that this ritual race was made around the area of the temple, once for each direction. Here, this is a double scene that is often found on the lintels of doorways that provide access to the sanctuaries of temples. On one side the king wears the red crown and on the other side, the white crown. Clearly visible, the king on the right holds two libation vessels. Behind him the two symbo…

karnak

the king, wearing a blue war helmet, kneeling in a persea tree. He has just been directed toward the sanctuary of his father Amun, by Atum, the master of Heliopolis, and by Montu, the master of Thebes. The king holds the hek and nekhakha scepters over his shoulder with one hand. With his other hand, he prop up the symbols of the sed festival that have been extended to him by Amun, who is seated in his naos.
Behind the king stands Thoth, who announces various renewals to him and inscribes the throne name on one of the fruits that he holds up in his left hand. Above this scene, in a cartouche on the left surmounted by the symbols of Upper and Lower Egypt, is the throne name of Ramesses II Usermaatre. Here, a winged disk gives his cartouche life.

karnak temple

coronation as king of Upper and Lower Egypt is depicted. Usermaatre, Son of Re, Ramesses (II) Meryamun is here seated on a throne and wearing the double crown representing the duality of his kingdom. In his hands he holds two, uncrossed scepters. He is flanked by two seated, female gods who grasp his shoulders. The goddess that he faces, to the east, is Nekhebet, mistress of the South. She assures him of her protection by "joining with his limbs" and of "his rejuvenation in the image of the Aten disk in heaven". Behind her, Horus of Behedet reaches over Nekhebet to present Ramesses II with the white crown set on a basket.
The goddess to the west is Wadjet, mistress of the North. Behind her, Thoth is presenting the red crown to the king, while confirming his divine origin and the righteousness of his rule over the Two Lands. The three thrones of the king and the two goddesses rests upon a single pedestal, while Thoth and Horus stand on the ground.

western facade of the third pylon

western facade of the third pylon was inscribed with five registers of scenes surmounted by a frieze of khakeru that represent the different phases of the Ritual of the Daily Divine Worship, during the reign of Seti I.
On the lower register, for example, the king breaks the clay seals, draws back the bolt, and opens the two sections of the door to heaven.
In the second register, we find the king wearing a headband, a long, pleated linen robe, and a large scarf. In his right hand, he holds a key-of-life shaped vessel, while in the left hand he grasps a bundle of tied straw, which he uses to eradicate the marks of his footprints while turning his back to the neter (god). While the text of this scene is lost to us, we may interpret its meaning from the a temple at Abydos and from the Berlin Papyrus, which in sixty-six chapters, describes the Ritual of the Daily Divine Worship.
In this type of depiction, the king is always represented as officiating in the temple reliefs, thou…

karnak temple

the king is kneeling, and his right leg is stretched behind him in the position known as the "silver statue", a posture that is very specific to Karnak. He bows before Re, who is seated in his naos. The king wears a headband and the atef crown, flanked by two uraei on disks, all surmounting the horns of Khnum. The king holds the hek and nekhakha scepters in his right hand. In the king's left hand, he supports the symbols of the sed festival and longevity that hand beneath the "palm of the years" that Re holds with the was in his right hand. With Re's left hand, he reaches out to the horn of the king's crown.
Behind Seti I's image we find a good example of the lion headed Sekhmet, who is here named "the great magician". She also holds, in her right hand, the "palm of the years, from which dangles some of the same symbols we find in the depiction of Re. Her left hand is raised.Amun-Re Kamutef, the prince of the Great E…

karnak temple

the king is once again depicted as he stands facing the west. He bows, while offering a lotus and papyrus bouquet. In this scene, he wears a wig that is finely portrayed with lines that end in curls radiating from the crown of his head. Two long, folded ribbons drop behind him from the nape of his neck. Covering his shoulders is the user necklace, consisting of seven rows of stones such as lapis lazuli, carnelian, turquoise and a row of beads, separated by gold wire. Above the king in the second cartouche we find the jackal-headed Seth animal used to write his Seti name. It follows the name of Horus and the cartouche of Menmaatre.



 the king entering the temple. He faces the east, towards the temple sanctuaries. Here, his first action is to "Give the House to Its Masters". The "house" is of course, the temple itself, which is depicted by a sanctuary, above which the king holds an ankh in his left hand. Before him, and facing the king is Amun-Re, presi…

The Great Hypostyle Hall at the Temple of Amun, Karnak

the king  wears the blue khepresh helmet. He is on his knees and is making offerings to Montu, who is in the heart of Thebes. The king offers three papyrus stems in his right hand and a bouquet of budding and flowering lotuses in his left. Montu, holding the was scepter with his right and and the ankh in his left, is standing..
The King makes offerings such as bread before Amun (standing)
king kneeling, this time before Amun. Above the king is the vulture god, Nekhebet. In this scene, the king offers breads, plucked and trussed geese and a bouquet of lotus buds and flowers on a platter to Amun. In return, Amun gives him "all life, stability, strength, and all enlargement of the heart, as Ra"
The lower register is in very poor condition, but we can make out the upper part of a naos in which the sacred barque of Amun rests.

The Great Hypostyle Hall at the Temple of Amun, Karnak

Amun-Re is seated on his throne; standing behind the god is the goddess Mut, who is ordinarily enfeoffed (subservient) with him. A second enfeoffed goddess [our of whose horns the solar disk emerges] holds a [sistrum] and flowers in her right hand raised before Amun-Re; with the left hand she holds the hand of pharaoh with a scratched-out figure of enfeoffment, who is holding [the hek scepter and the nekhakha scepter] on his shoulder and is bowing as he approaches Amun-Re...
Behind the king, the god [Khonsu] is standing, disk and crescent, the enfeoffment of the prince, necklace, body clad in a girdle, the one hand holding a panegyric scepter, the other designating a notch with the gnomon. He is performing the duties of Thoth here, for whom he is the prototype."
These depictions apparently overlay earlier depictions and in fact, the great disk carved in sunk relief above the face of Seti I is from one of these earlier scenes. Legrain believed…