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Showing posts from September, 2011

Book of the Earth

This funerary composition lacks an original ancient Egyptian title, and has actually been called by a number of names, depending on the scholar. Piankoff refers to it as La creation du disque solaire (The Creation of the Sun Disk).  Hartwig Altenmuller calls it Buch des Aker (Book of Aker), while Erik Hornung names it Buch von der Erde (Book of the Earth) and Barta refers to it as Erdbunch (Earth-Book).





This was the last great composition concerning the netherworld, where the sun disk is raised up from the depths of the earth by numerous pairs of arms, and where the enemies of Egypt, those whose souls have not been blessed, are punished and destroyed in the Place of Annihilation.

Above all, it stresses the gods of the depths of the earth such as Aker, Geb and Tatenen.

However, in reality it is not known if these scenes and texts from a part of a single composition or an amalgamation from different works, and the divisions of the bo…

Unique' astronomical object reveals Ancient Egyptians kept close tabs on the Big Dipper

New research on a 2,400 year old star table shows that the Ancient Egyptians kept close tabs on the Big Dipper, monitoring changes in the constellation’s orientation throughout the course of an entire year.
The Big Dipper is composed of seven stars and is easily viewable in the northern hemisphere. Its shape looks like a ladle with a scoop attached. Ancient Egyptians represented it as an ox’s foreleg.
If a person were to observe the constellation at the exact same time every night they would see it gradually move counter-clockwise each time they saw it.
Professor Sarah Symons, of McMaster University in Hamilton Canada, carried out the new research. She presented her results on Sunday at an Egyptology symposium in Toronto. The star table she analyzed is located inside the lid of a 2,400 year old granite sarcophagus, constructed in the shape of a bull, which is now in the Egyptian Museum. The table is, “unique, though interesting, a very provocative astronomical object,” s…

King Tut suffered 'massive' chest injury, new research reveals

new study shows that Tutankhamun, Egypt’s famous “boy-king” who died around the age of 18, suffered a “massive crushing tearing injury to his chest” that likely would have killed him. 
X-rays and CT scans have previously shown that the pharaoh’s heart, chest wall, the front part of his sternum and adjacent ribs, are missing. In Ancient Egypt the heart was like the brain and removing it was something that was not done.
“The heart, considered the seat of reason, emotion, memory and personality, was the only major organ intentionally left in the body,” writes Dr. Robert Ritner in the book Ancient Egypt.
The new research was done by Dr. Benson Harer, a medical doctor with an Egyptology background, who was given access to nearly 1700 CT scan images of Tut that were taken by a team of Egyptian scientists in 2005. Dr. Zahi Hawass, head of the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities, gave permission for the work.
“Zahi was very kind he let me get access to the entire database of al…

The Book of Am-Tuat Chapter XII - The Twelfth Division Of The Tuat Which Is Called Then-neteru

THE TWELFTH DIVISION 1 of the Tuat, which is passed through by the Sun-god during the TWELFTH HOUR of the night, is introduced by three lines of text, which read:
"The Majesty of this great god taketh up his position in this Circle, which is the uttermost limit of thick darkness, and this great god is born in his form of Khepera in this Circle, and Nut and Nu are in this Circle for the birth of this great god when he cometh forth from the Tuat and taketh up his position in the Matet Boat, and when he riseth up from the thighs of Nut.
The name of the Gate of this City is THEN-NETERU.
The name of this City is KHEPER-KEKIU-KHAU-MESTU.
The name of the hour of the night wherein this god cometh into being is MAA-NEFERT-RA."
Above the whole scene is a line of hieroglyphics, which describes it as:
"The hidden Circle in the Tuat wherein this great god is born; he cometh forth into the pool of Nu, and he taketh up his place in the body of Nut.
Whosoever shall make …

The Book of Am-Tuat Chapter XI - The Eleventh Division Of The Tuat Which Is Called Re-en-qerert-apt-khatu

THE ELEVENTH DIVISION of the Tuat, which is passed through by the Sun-god during the ELEVENTH HOUR of the night, is introduced by three lines of text, which read:
"The Majesty of this great god taketh up his position in this Circle, and he addresseth words unto the gods who are in it.
The name of the gate of this City through which this great god hath entered is SEKEN-TUATIU;
the name of this City is RE-EN-QERERT-APT-KHATU;
the name of the hour of the night which guideth this great god is SEBIT-NEBT-UAA-KHESFET-SEBA-EM-PERT-F."

In the middle register are:
Image right 1: 1, Mehni. 2, Semsem. 3, Sekhennu. 4, Shetu.
Image right 2: 1, Ama. 2, Amu. 3, Erta. 4, Shepu.
Image right 3: 1, Neteru. 2, Athpi. 3, Ermenu. 4, Fa (?).
Image right 4: (Left) Sem-Nebt-het. (Right) Sem-shet.
Image right 5: 1, Neith the Young. 2, Neith of the White Crown. 2, Neith of the Red Crown. 3, Neith of the phallus.

1. The boat of the sun, in which stands the god under a canopy formed by the body o…

The Book of Am-Tuat Chapter X - The Tenth Division Of The Tuat Which Is Called Metet-qa-utchebu

HAVING passed through the NINTH DIVISION of the Tuat, the boat of the sun arrives at the TENTH DIVISION, which is passed through by the sun during the TENTH HOUR of the night.
The opening text reads:
"This great god taketh up his place in this Circle, and he uttereth words to the gods who dwell therein.
The name of the door of this City through which this great god entereth is AA-KHERPU-MES-ARU.
The name Of this City is METET-QA-UTCHEBU.
The name of the hour of the night which guideth this great god to the hidden paths of this City is TENTENIT-UHESET-KHAK-ABU."


In the middle register are:
Image right 1: The Boat of Af, the dead Sun-god, in the Tenth Hour.
Image right 2: (Left) Shemerti. (Center) The serpent Thes-hrau. (Right) Hert-erment.
Image right 3: 1, The serpent Ankh-ta.
Image right 4: 1, Setu. 2, Ertau. 3, Khesefu. 4, Sekennu.
Image right 5: 1, Petthi. 2, Shemerthi. 3, Thesu. 4, Kha-a.

1. The boat of the sun, in which the god stands under a canopy formed by t…

The Book of Am-Tuat Chapter IX - The Ninth Division Of The Tuat Which Is Called Best-aru-ankhet-kheperu

HAVING passed through the EIGHTH DIVISION of the Tuat, the boat of the sun arrives at the NINTH DIVISION, which is passed through by the sun during the NINTH HOUR of the night.
The opening text reads:
"This great god taketh up his place in this Circle, and he addresseth words from his boat to those who are in it.
The divine sailors join the boat of this great god in this City.
The name of the gate of this City through which this god entereth
and taketh up his place on the stream which is in this City is SAA-EM-KEB;
the name of this City is BEST-ARU-ANKHET-KHEPERU;
the name of the Hour of the night which guideth this great god is TUATET-MAKETET-EN-NEB-S."
The line of text which runs above the upper register reads:
"The hidden Circle of Amentet, through which this great god travelleth and taketh up his place in the Tuat.
If these things be made with their names after the manner of this figure
which is depicted at the east of the hidden house of the T…