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Showing posts from 2015

13 Things that Egyptians Were the First to Create

Egypt has a glorious past, its people descended from a civilization that was once the most intellectually and technologically advanced in the world. Because we all sometimes need a reminder, here’s a quick round-up of successful inventions that were created by Egyptians before any other civilization.

Eye makeup (eyeshadow and eyeliner) – 4000 BCE

Egyptians were among the first to popularize the use of eye makeup. Some of the earliest makeup palettes date back to circa 5000 BCE, the most common colors being green (made out of malachite, a green carbonate of copper) and black (made out of galena, an ore of lead).

System of writing (pictographs) – 3200 BCE
Composed of around 500 symbols, Egyptian hieroglyphics date back to 3200 BCE and represented the first writing system based on illustrated representations of words or sounds.
With the exception of Mesopotamian cuneiform, which emerged independently around 3200 BCE, the innovation of writing in Egypt predated other civilizatio…

10 Unbelievable Facts About Ancient Egyptians

Society in Egypt has changed quite a bit since its ancient predecessors thousands of years ago. From popular misconceptions to bizarre practices, you won’t believe these facts we found about ancient Egyptians:

1. Ancient Egyptian children often had shaved heads and were naked in public until puberty. The hot weather and lack of AC made clothes non-essential.

2. Both men and women wore makeup in ancient Egypt. Eye shadow was extremely popular, especially in green and black. Originally, make-up was thought of as sunscreen and it was believed to possess healing powers. Although many scientists today believe the lead-based paints fought off eye infections, they may have also resulted in lead poisoning.

3. Experts believe that Cleopatra wasn’t ethnically Egyptian – she was actually Macedonian Greek. Although she was born in Egypt, her lineage traces back to Ptolemy I, the Macedonian leader left in charge of Alexandria after Alexander the Great’s conquest.

4. Ramses the Great had…

TT100, the tomb of REKHMIRE at Thebes - Luxor - Egypt

Rekhmire was seated at the end of the wall, facing left. This has been completely effaced and the area where he was covered with red paint; we recognize the faint trace at his feet as a goose of Amun . Above him is a short text informs us that Rekhmire is "in session to  judge
between the poor and the rich in the same way,

Rekhmire stood in a large room whose columns are inscribed halfway up with the name of Thutmose - Menkheperre "beloved of Maat".

The artist has separated the people admitted in the courtroom from those outside 

Before the vizier are four mats each supporting ten elongated objects. One thinks, of course, of the 40 leather rolls bearing the text of the laws or these are the  batons of authority which serve the assessors.

The Grandees of the Southern Ten are placed before him on the right and left, with as many scribes, 40 people in total. If the petitioners are treated with respect by the ushers in and out of the room, it is not the same for thos…

TT100, the tomb of REKHMIRE at Thebes -Luxor - Egypt

a large inscription of 45 lines, damaged by numerous pieces falling off: which gives the autobiography of the Vizier
It was written in hieroglyphics from a hieratic original.

His Duties

Order of Precedence
When a person speaks to another, it must be done according to their social level (literally: when one (person) that addresses another (person) it must be (done) with every man according to his rank.

Reports about warehouses
He will report the sealing of warehouses and their opening at the right time. He will report on everything that enters into or leaves the territory of the Residence, when they come in and they go out,

Protocol for interviews with the King

Judgment of a dishonest magistrate

Do not allow any magistrate to have power over a decision (made) in his office. If a complaint happens against one of the judges who is in his office, he (the Vizier) will ensure that this leads the judge into the courtroom. It is the Vizier who must punish (him) according to his crime. D…

TT100, the tomb of REKHMIRE at Thebes -Luxor - Egypt

monkeys, a basket of skins (top right), two bundles of reed arrows, a bag with? Ten peculiar pieces of wood, products of the nebes tree: ten arches made of its wood, three skins filled with a fruit paste and two baskets containing cakes made with those same fruits.

Register 2 ( more nebes tree fruit, a basket of "skins", pigeons in cages

Register 3  : this time there are boxes full of textiles, gold and silver rings

 (these are white,  et des colliers comportant des perles d'or.
and collars having gold beads

Register 4  : the stack of objects is replaced by a balance with which precious metals are being weighed. A scribe carefully notes the results. The scene is very damaged.

Register 5 : is in very poor condition. Davies describes bags, reed mats, cordage and ten millstone wheels made of hard red stone.

 Note that there are no fish, goats or pigs shown (not food of the elite) and that the only birds represented are pigeons

TT100, the tomb of REKHMIRE at Thebes-Luxor -Egypt

The tax collectors are placed to the right of the registers, separated from the payers by stacks of contributions

TT100, the tomb of REKHMIRE at Thebes-Luxor -Egypt

processions that are bringing to the Vizier produce of the cities south and and north of Thebes (regions called "The head of Upper Egypt", which reach from Elephantine to Assiut)

 These regions, north and south, comprise of 40 tax districts each (a total of 80). Each of the 80 district officials brings its contribution, livestock, agricultural and other products, but also frequently in rings or necklaces of gold and silver

  its contribution in precious metals expressed in deben (1 deben = 91g)

TT100, the tomb of REKHMIRE at Thebes-Luxor -Egypt

The transverse hall is divided into two wings, north (right as you enter, by the entrance door . The south wing contains the most interesting elements:
the text upon the Duties of the Vizier, a ‘Vizier Investiture’ text by Thutmose III, as well as scenes of tribute arriving from foreign nations. In the north wing there are more traditional scenes of hunting and fishing, as well as the genealogy of the Vizier.

 The tops of the walls are occupied by the classical frieze pattern khakerou, while at their base runs a band consisting of two yellow and red bands bordered by black lines, below comes an empty space that goes down to the ground. 

TT100, the tomb of REKHMIRE at Thebes-Luxor -Egypt

Door frames and ceilings
1)- The inside of the front door

Lintel and jambs carry traditional prayers to Re-Horakhty, Amon-Ra, Thoth and Osiris.

2)- The door between the transverse and longitudinal rooms

The lintel bears an invocatory offering to twelve deities, those on the left representing the forms of Osiris

These are "Amon-Ra, Lord of the Thrones of the Two Lands in Karnak", "Anubis, who is upon his hill, Lord of To-djeser", "Re-Horakhty in heaven", "Osiris in Orion of the southern sky", "Hathor, Regent of Thebes in Karnak",

"Thoth, at the head of Igeret", "Osiris Lord of Life", "Osiris Onnuris", "Osiris, who is Gold of Millions", "Osiris, Lord of Eternity", "Osiris of the places of life", 

"Osiris, Lord of Eternity", "Osiris of the places of life", "Osiris at the head of Tenenet in Tenenet". The six prayers on the jambs are made to Mut, Re-At…