Skip to main content

The Book of Am-Tuat first previous index next The Book of Am-Tuat The Second Division of the Tuat Chapter II - The Second Division of the Tuat Which is called Urnes

Boat Of Af2 IN the Scene that illustrates the SECOND DIVISION of the Tuat, which is passed through by the Sun-god during the SECOND HOUR of the night, the Boat of the Ram-headed god AF is seen making its way along the stream which flows, as before, through the division lengthwise; the crew consists of the same gods, and they occupy the same positions in the boat as they did in the First Division.
It is, however, important to notice that immediately in front of Ap-uat we see two serpents, which are called Isis and Nephthys respectively, occupying the front of the boat.
No carpet or mat hangs over the bows of the boat, and the utchat is not represented on its side; the boat moves over the waters by means of some power exerted either by itself or by some of the gods who stand in it. In front of the boat of AF the way is led by a procession of four boats, which are moved, presumably, by the same power which moves the boat of Ra.
Image right: The Boat of the Full Moon.Full Moon Boat
The FIRST BOAT has ends which terminate in bearded human heads, and its celestial and solar character is attested by the sign for "heaven," and the utchat, Utchat with which its sides are ornamented.
The object of this boat is to support the disk of the full moon, which rests within a crescent upon a support divided into thirteen sections, each typifying a day; thus the full moon as it appears on the fourteenth day of the month is here represented. By the disk kneels a god who is "supporting Maat," which is symbolized by a feather, and is described by the word MAAT written between it and the support of the moon's disk.
In the mutilated text above the boat it is said that
"this great god approacheth this region, and he is conveyed along in the boats of the earth, by means of their . . . . ., and he paddleth along through this Field and uttereth words,"
The name of the fore part of the boat appears to be URER, and in front of the boat is written "Chief of the gods of the Tuat;" the hieroglyphics above the full moon read Moon Hyroglyphics, and those above the stern of the boat read,
"Field of him that beareth up URNES."
Image right: The Boat of the goddess Hathor. Hathor Boat
The ends of the SECOND BOAT likewise terminate in bearded human heads, but each is surmounted by a pair of plumes. In the centre of the boat, between two goddesses, stands a huge sistrum, which is the symbol of the goddess Hathor, and indicates that the boat is that of HATHOR, or of HATHOR-ISIS. In the fore part of the boat is a beetle, which is described as "This great god NEPER,"
Above the goddess to the left of the sistrum are written the words, "their boats send forth their words," over the plumed head in front is written Hyroglyphics Osiris and over that at the other end of the boat, "Osiris crieth to it."
On the side of the boat are the signs Hyroglyphics Eye and Hyroglyphics Plate.
Image right: The Boat of the Lizard-god.Lizard God
The prow of the THIRD BOAT is surmounted by a crown of the South, and the stern by a crown of the North, and between the two sceptres, which symbolize the gods ANPU and AP-UAT, i.e., the jackal-headed gods of the South and North, is a huge lizard, from the back of which spring the head of Osiris and a White Crown. On the side of the boat are the signs Hyroglyphics Eye and Hyroglyphics Plate. Above the crown of the North is the legend U-UR, which, however, probably refers to the sceptre near it; above the lizard we have Hyroglyphics Nepter the foremost sceptre Hyroglyphics Nepter_2, and immediately in front is Hyroglyphics Nepter_3 and under the front of the boat is Hyroglyphics Nepter_4.
The prow and stern of the FOURTH BOAT terminate in heads of uraei, each of which is turned towards the deity who is kneeling in the middle of the boat. In the centre kneels a woman without arms, and before and behind her stands a man, who is likewise without arms.
Image right: The Boat of the Grain-god Neper.Neper

At each end of the boat grows a plant or, perhaps, a large ear of wheat, which indicates that the boat is that of the form of Osiris as the god of vegetation, who is known by the name NEPER. The legend by the ear of corn in the front of the boat reads,
"the boat which conveyeth Neper,"
and that by the ear in the stern, "collector of herbs and plants," The deity in the boat, or the boat itself perhaps, is called HEPT-MENA-F-TUA-UAA-F. This boat is the boat of the god NEPER, the god of grain, and a form of Osiris as the god of vegetation; it may be noted that its side has no utchat upon it.

In the upper register are:
Image right: Second Hour. Upper Register. Gods Nos. 1-21.Second Hour Upper
1. A bearded god, with a phallus in the form of a knife, called AST NETCH-T, i.e., "Isis, the avengeress."
2. A god of similar form and attribute called SEB-QENBETI, i.e., "Seb of the two corners.
3. A ram-headed god, with a similar attribute, called KHNEMU QENBETI, "Khnemu of the two corners."
4. An ibis-headed god, with a similar attribute, called TEHUTI-HER-KHENT-F, i.e., "Thoth on his steps."
5. An ape-headed god, with a similar attribute, called AFU-HER-KHENT-F, i.e., "Afu on his steps."
6. Lioness-headed deity, with a similar attribute, called KETUIT-TENT-BA, i.e., "Cutter of the soul."
All the above gods are in mummied form, and occupy chairs of state.
7. A god standing upright, and holding a kherp sceptre or weapon in his left hand; he is called SEKHEM-A-KHEFTIU i.e., "Overcomer of the power of the enemy."
8. A hawk-headed god, with a uraeus on his head, called HERU-TUAT, i.e., "Horus of the Tuat."
9. A god, who holds a knife in his left hand, and has his right raised to strike; he is called SEBEN-HESQ-KHAIBITU.
10, 11. Two ape-headed gods, called respectively BENTI and AANA.
12. A god with the head of a hawk and the head of an animal, SET and HERU-UR, who is here called "He of the two faces."
13, 14. The crook of Osiris, and the upper half of a serpent called MET-EN-ASAR, i.e., "staff of Osiris."
15. The term of Osiris facing a deity with the head of a lioness, who is called SESENT-KHU, i.e., "Terrifier of spirits."
16-18. Three goddesses, each of whom has a sceptre in her left hand, and a uraeus on her head; their names are:
19-21. The goddesses SEKHET, of Thebes, AM-TCHERU, AMENT-NEFERT and NET-TEPT-ANT.

In the lower register are the following:
Image right: Second Hour. Lower Register. Gods Nos. 1-22.Second Hour Lower
1. A god, standing, called NEBAUI,
2-4. Three gods, each of whom has two ears of corn stuck in his hair; these are called BESUA, NEPER, and TEPU (?), (or, PAN).
5-7. Three gods, each holding an ear of wheat in his left hand; their names are HETCH-A, AB, and NEPEN.
8. A god, holding a knife in his left hand, called AR-AST-NETER.
9-11. Three gods, seated, in mummy forms. The first has the head of a horned animal, and is called AMU-AA, i.e., "the Eater of the phallus"; the second has the head of a man, and is called AKHABIT; and the third has the head of a Jackal, and is called NEBT-TA-TCHESER.
12. The god OSIRIS UN-NEFER, in mummy form, wearing the crown of the South.
13. The god KHUI, who holds in each hand a long lotus-topped sceptre surmounted by a star.
14. The two-headed god (Horus-Set?) called HRA-F-A-F.
15. The god HERU-HEN.
16, 17. Two gods, each holding in his left hand the sign of life inverted; their names are HUN and HETCHETCHTU.
18-20. Three gods, each holding a palm branch; their names are NEHA, (or NAREH), MAKHI, and RENPITI.
21. A god, who holds a knife in his left hand, and is called AFAU.,
22. A god, holding in his hand the symbol of "year," who is called FA-AR-TRU.
The text referring to the gods in the upper register reads:
"[Those who are in this picture] praise this great god after he hath come forth to them, and behold, it is their words which lead him to them; they lament when he hath passed onwards, having spoken words to them. Behold, these gods are they who make the words of those who are upon earth to reach [the god],and it is they who make souls to approach their forms.
Their work consisteth in causing to come into being the offerings of the night, and in performing the overthrow [of enemies] at their hour.
It is they who guard the day, and who bring on the night until this great god cometh forth from out of the thick darkness to repose in this Court of the eastern horizon of heaven.
They cry out in lamentation to this great god, and they utter wailings for him after he hath passed by them. Those who know them shall come forth by day, and he shall be able to journey during the night to the divisions of the great double city."
The texts which describe the duties of the gods in the lower register read:
"[Those who are in this picture give unto this great god the seasons] and the years which are in their hands. When this great god hath made speech with them, they answer him, and they have life through the voice of this great god, and their throats draw in breath, for when he crieth to them he ordereth them what they are to do, and he appointeth to them green herbs in abundance in their field.
And they supply with the green herbs of URNES the gods who are in the following of Ra, and they make offerings of water to the spirits by the command of this great god, and they kindle flames of fire in order to burn up the enemies of Ra, and there is wailing to them, and they lament after this great god hath passed them by.
AM-NEBAUI is the guardian of this Field; whosoever knoweth [this] is in the condition of a spirit equipped with [words of power], and [the gods] protect [him]."
The five lines of text which contain the address of the gods to Ra, and the answer of the god, read:
The gods of the Tuat speak to this great god as he entereth in with understanding to the boundary, and he is borne over NET-RA into URNES, saying,
"Hail, thou who risest as a Mighty Soul (KHA-BA-AA), who hast received [the things which belong to] the Tuat, AF, thou guardian of heaven . . . . . thou livest, O AF, in TA-TESERT.
Come thou, and cast thou thine eye in thy name of Living One, Khepera, at the head of the Tuat. Traverse thou this Field, O thou who hast might, bind thou with fetters the HAU serpent, and smite thou the serpent Neha-hra.
There is rejoicing in heaven, and there are shouts of gladness upon the earth at the entrance of thy (literally, his) body.
He who shineth sendeth forth light, and the URU gods give light [at dawn; destroy thou] the darkness which is in AMENT in thy name of SEKHER-SHETAU-UR-A, illumine thou the thick darkness, O AF. His jawbones are to him, and Ra taketh up his position in AMENT.
Thy boat is to thee, and it is thy right, thou art guided along, and those who convey thee over the water and who dwell in the earth make calamities to come upon APEP straightway on thy behalf.
Thy protector is the Star-God (SBA), thou art praised and adored, thy soul passeth on, thou goest onward and thy body is equipped with power, and the regions (?) are opened [to thee].
The doors of the hidden land are opened [before thee], OSIRIS cometh unto thee, OSIRIS avengeth thee, and thy word is maat against thy enemies.
Thou goest to rest, thou goest to rest in AMENT, and thou comest into being in the form of KHEPERA in the East."
This great god sendeth forth words to the gods who dwell in the, Tuat and to those who inhabit URNES, saying,
"Open ye your hidden doors so that the god AF may look [upon you] and may throw aside your darkness,
and that ye may draw your water from URNES,
and your bread from . . . . . .,
and that wind may come to your nostrils,
and that ye may not be destroyed and overcome by your own foul odour,
and that ye may not be choked by your own dung,
and that ye may untie and cast away your swathings,
and that ye may lift up your legs and walk upon them,
and that ye may stretch out your arms,
and that your souls may not be made to remove themselves from you.
O ye who live in your forms,
and who utter your words of magical power,
who are provided with your swords [whereby] ye may hack in pieces the enemies of Osiris,
whose seasons are permanent,
whose years are well established,
who pass your state of being [in] your hours,
who dwell in your estates,
who have your barley in your bread cakes,
who have loaves of bread made of the grain which is yours,
whose word is maat, depart from my boats,
and retreat before [my] images, [that I] may vivify anew this your Field,
the Field . . . . . . living ones.
[My] soul is among . . . . . . you who have done battle on my behalf,
who have protected me against Apep,
who have life through my soul, who have being through my bodies,
who stablish your seats of holiness which have been decreed to you that ye may exist therein,
[who are with your souls] by day,
who are in my following in the Tuat,
when I make my way through the night and when I destroy the darkness,
O grant me your help so that I may travel on in the following of my eye,
and that I may journey forwards with those who go to my place in the East.
Utter ye cries of joy, O gods of the Tuat, for I avenge you, [utter ye cries of joy,] for I order your destinies."
When they have addressed this god whilst rowing along his boat Am-TA, they cry out, and they bring him to rest in the Field of the NEPERTIU gods who are in the following of Osiris. If these scenes be done [in writing] according to the similitudes which are in the hidden place of the palace, and if a man hath knowledge of [these] words . . . . they shall act as magical protectors of a man upon earth, regularly, unfailingly, and eternally.
The name of this hour is SESHET-MAKET-NEB-S.


Popular posts from this blog

How ancient Egyptians Were cutting the Obelisk from the Granite quarry?

Today, quarrymen cut and carve granite using saws with diamond-edged blades and steel chisels.

But ancient Egyptian quarrymen and stonemasons didn't have these modern tools. How, then, did they quarry and cut such clean lines in their obelisks and other monumental statuary?
To find out how ancient Egyptians quarried huge pieces of granite for their obelisks, i traveled to an ancient quarry in Aswan, located 500 miles south of Cairo. This is where the ancient Egyptians found many of the huge granite stones they used for their monuments and statues.

One of the most famous stones left behind is the Unfinished Obelisk, more than twice the size of any known obelisk ever raised. Quarrymen apparently abandoned the obelisk when fractures appeared in its sides. However, the stone, still attached to bedrock, gives important clues to how the ancients quarried granite.

Archeologist Mark Lehner, a key member of nova expedition, crouches in a granite trench that abuts one side of…

Hesi-re, the first Dentist, in ancient Egypt and in the world

Hesire was a high official who lived during the reign of Netjerikhet (Dosjer) 2686 BC to 2613 BC . His tutelary informs us of the many offices he had held during his life. Thus he was the 'overseer of the royal scribes', at the head of the royal administration of Djoser. His most spectacular title, however, was that of the 'greatest (or chief ?)of physicians and dentists'. It is not entirely clear whether this title infers that Hesire himself was honored as the greatest of physicians and dentists, or rather that he was merely responsible for the administration of physicians and dentists. But whatever the case, the distinction between 'physicians' and 'dentists' in his tutelary does show a high degree of medical specialization at this early stage of the history of Ancient Egypt..

Das Tal der Koenige

Die geographische Lage
Das Gebiet bei Theben lieferte ein vorzügliches Gebiet für das Anlegen einer königlichen Nekropole. Vom Westufer des Nils erstreckt sich eine flache Ebene zu einer Bergkette mit zahlreichen abgeschiedenen Tälern, die sich zwischen hohen Klippen und weichem Gestein durchschlängeln. Die Ebene eignete sich ideal für das Errichten der königlichen Totentempel. Die Täler hingegen boten genügend Platz, um viele kunstvoll in den Fels gehauene Gräber anzulegen. Auch aus symbolischen Gründen wählten die Alten Ägypter diesen Platz für das Errichten einer Nekropole. Blickt man von der Stadt Theben über den Nil auf das thebanische Bergmassiv, dann ähnelt es in der Gestalt einer riesigen Version der Hieroglyphe für "Horizont". Es ist das ägyptische Symbol für das Gebiet der auf- und untergehenden Sonne. Im Neuen…