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ELKAB THE TOMB OF PEHRi (like a book which the ancient Egyptians have to us to instruct us in a great part of the customs and work which composed at home the economy of civil life".







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•  the tomb was built in the shape of a tunnel, very small in size,  about 8.30m. long, 3.80m.wide 3.50m.high at its middle.
The tomb includes a platform in front of the entry, where the funeral well was dug; one sculptured facade is now very ruined; an oblong chamber with an arched roof, entirely decorated by relief sculpturing and painting and finally a niche at the rear, containing three statues.(copy of luxor nobles tombs)(

• Later, a new entry had been dug in the east wall, through the sculpturing. Two crudely built chambers, with a funeral well had thus been added.
The floor of the main chamber had then been cut away, leaving irregular hewn masses in the corners.


Tomb plan
• The facade of the tomb had been set into the hill, on both sides the two areas which carried vertical columns of hieroglyphs are today extensively destroyed. Then, as there was a high and wide space on the right: a representation of Paheri was added in the hollow relief (1), knelt addressing a prayer to the local goddess Nekhbet.

• Work in the tomb is of a beautiful quality, although sandstone doesn't permit the sharpness of execution which is reached in the tombs in the limestone of the Theban region. All figures and hieroglyphs are sculpted in raised relief and are painted. Only the small hieroglyphs and those of the wall at the rear are hardly incised and filled with blue painting

• The main chamber has the form of a tunnel with an arched ceiling, the two walls of the extremities presenting at their upper part a tympanum aspect.
To the right(2) (on the south wall) is a representation of Paheri, in his left hand his staff of office. Above him, is a boat, possibly an evocation of the ritual pilgrimage to Abydos.
The west wall (3) is divided into two sections, in the first are the owner's representations taking care of the farm work: harvests, hunting, fishing, loading of the boats, ... and at the other end the accomplishment of the  funerary rituals.
The east wall (4) presents indoor activities. The first is a great banquet to which many forebears, parents and friends, participate. The second is a scene of worship accompanied by a long inscription summarising the funerary program of the tomb. The side chambers, originally accessed through the northern end of east wall are of a later execution than Paheri.
At the far end, the rear (north) wall (5) is covered with a remarkably long inscription including the deceased's merits, and prayers for a happy future.
In the centre of the rear wall is a great niche (6) containing the remains of three statues.
On each of the side walls, above the scenes, is a line of large hieroglyphs, running the length of the chamber. Above this, on the start of the curve of the vaulted ceiling, there is a hkrw frieze, followed by another line of large hieroglyphs. Down the centre length of the ceiling, runs another line of inscription. The space between the three ceiling lines of hieroglyphs is filled with a painted design of differently coloured zigzag lines( cavetto cornice), forming a diamond pattern, running the whole length of the chamber.

HOW DID WE DISCOVER THIS TOMB?
*The tomb had already beendiscovered by the scholars of the Egyptian expedition in 1799
*but it was first visited by Cortaz who gives a touching description of it: the tomb is "like a book which the ancient Egyptians have to us to instruct us in a great part of the customs and work which composed at home the economy of civil life".
*In 1825 James Burton copied the scenes of the two walls of the main chamber.
* Champollion and Rossellini,
*then Robert Hay and Wilkinson worked at El Kab.
*The most meaningful publications were then those of Lepsius and Brugsches.
The mutilations which effect most representations of characters are due to the Copts. Otherwise the presence of recovery fillers on the scenes of the lateral walls of the main chamber show that flaking had already appeared at the time of the creation of the tomb and corrected by applications of mortar. The tomb had also suffered attempts at plundering by carving from the outlines, but the original images could be restored.

THE NAME OF PEHRI IN HIEROGLPHIC
No matter what the custom is in writing the name of"Paheri", the hieroglyphs which designate him are , or which is "Pahery".

The tomb of Paheri gives us IMPORTANTinformation to reconstruct the family tree, of this powerful provincial prince, for six generations.

• His maternal grandfather was the famous Ahmose son of Abana, in the tomb of whom one finds unique historical inscriptions to be able to understand the confused period of the beginnings of the 18th Dynasty and the fall of the Hyksos.

• By his wife Apu, Ahmose had a daughter, Kem, who married the scribe Atefrura, a high Theban dignitary who was the tutor of the royal prince Uadjmes. It is actually our Paheri (or could have been his brother, of the same name) who was responsible for the digging of the tomb of his grandfather. One can read there : " it was his daughter's son who undertook the work in this funeral chamber, perpetuating the name of his mother's father, the scribe of the contours of the god Amon, Paheri " and also (a prayer) " for Ahmose, son of Abana, by his daughter's son, who makes live his name, Paheri, justified (lit. "true of voice", thus "deceased") ". In the tomb this descendent from the maternal side, considered as prestigious, is located everywhere, including all maternal forebears and the cousins, while the paternal side is almost entirely neglected.

 The titles
It is remarkable that Paheri doesn't possess,  any of the titles usually carried by the courtiers, for example he is not qualified as "unique friend" (smr wat).
 it seems that Paheri only took advantage of his functions of great property owner and governor, enjoying the king's confidence. The titles commonly associated with Paheri are those of nomarch (= governor prince) and scribe. He is often called nomarch of Nekheb and Anyt (Letopolis or Esna) both are two main cities of the third nome of Upper Egypt.
Paheri was, as scribe, responsible for the grain from Ant (Denderah) to Nekheb. He was " uppermost of the land with grain of the South district, (the one who) satisfied his master's desire, from Per-Hathor to Nekheb, ". Per-Hathor (literally: the house, the domain, of Hathor) can be likened here to Tentyra, capital of the sixth nome of Upper Egypt. Paheri is thus the person responsible for the grain in a very vast sector.
Like his father, Paheri carries the title of tutor of hereditary prince by the name of Uadjmes. But it cannot be about the same character since this one is represented here as a baby, while one sees represented the children and even the grandchildren of Paheri. It is probably about a child of Thutmosis I. The two princes Uadjmes had died very young, since neither of them ascended to the throne, or it was about even younger sons of the king.
 he was chief of the priests of the god of his city : " uppermost of the priests of Nekhbet ". Nekhbet is the great tutelary goddess of Upper Egypt, the vulture goddess often wearing the white crown, and his name is often associated with the title " the White one of Nekheb ".
the facade

On the east wall, to the right of the entry of the tomb, one finds a representation of Paheri, knelt, the arms raised southwards. He is very simply clothed in a short lioncloth. The inscription above his head is damaged, but can be restored. It concerns a prayer to the goddess Nekhbet :
It says " Homage to You Mistress of the mouth of the two valleys (note: another name for the goddess Nekhbet), Mistress of the sky [.....]
The rest of the facade is very damaged, notably the two door posts which surround the entry. Originally, they carried inscriptions of 3m. in height, containing the prayers to various divinities, prayers included " for the Ka of the nomarch of Nekheb, Paheri, justified "
On the left, the two columns addressed to Amon-Ra asking him "for the soft breaths of the North"; the rest is damaged too much to be validly interpreted.
On the right, three columns address to Nekhbet, Hathor and possibly Osiris.
On the first, " [...] mistress of the sky, Henut-tauy, that she gives all good things for his altar for the ka [...] ".
On the second, more or less the same thing.
The third column includes the picture of the mummified vulture wearing the white crown of Upper Egypt. Some identify it as Kemhes, god related to the city of Hierakonpolis, situated on the other side of the Nile.
Another missing god, because the continuation of the inscription asks " that they may give all things, all offerings for the ka [...] "
Above these inscriptions were some others which are obliterated.

THE INSCRIPTIONS ON THE ENTRANCE PASSAGE
It had to certainly include some inscriptions, but these have here disappeared completely.

THE WALL AT THE FRONT

On the east section, Paheri is represented clothed in a loincloth sitting high on the hips, and with a transparent tunic. In his right hand, a piece of material (of which the significance still is not well understood) and in his left hand a staff of office. To his right, the damaged hieroglyphic column damaged completes the image for leaving the tomb, by proclaiming : " to go out on the land to see the disk [...] ".
One can suppose that on the other part of the wall was a symmetrical representation of Paheri.
At the level of the lintel one finds an interesting representation of a boat for which it is difficult to imagine the significance, could be an evocation of the ritual pilgrimage to Abydos.

THE WEST WALL
The wall is divided into three large section.
 *The first occupies nearly half of the group, represents Paheri in his functions of scribe and nomarch.
* The second shows the activities of Paheri in his private domain, and *the last is occupied by scenes of a funerary character.
The various scenes represented here present a major interest, because they cover the agricultural activities of the country all year round,  the cyclic life of the country is mentioned on these walls and the participle of the hope of eternity for Paheri: integrated into these representations, Paheri will also participate for eternity in the eternally renewed life of Egypt.
SCENES OF THE WEST WALL

West Wall, South End : The Official Functions of Paheri

1) Inspection of the agricultural domains and the grain

• The agricultural scenes of seed time and harvests occupy three registers, flanked by a large standing representation of Paheri.
This representation is very different from the one of the entry wall. Here, the noble doesn't have his beautiful presence anymore: of a wig of office, of a short beard of a noble. Yet he holds in his hands his attributes of power: the stick in the left hand and the sekhem-scepter of power in the other.
The unusual treatment of the head probably results from the sculptor's mistake, who dug too deeply. It was subsequently impossible to recover from this mistake in spite of the application of a filler, which didn't resist time. There remains the fragments of a duplicate face of which none of the sculpturing persists in a satisfactory state.
The inscription which accompanies this representation makes reference to the flowing of the seasons : " see the shemu (summer) season, the peret (winter) season and all the works of the fields by the prince of Nekheb, the prince of Anyt (the one who) acts while inspecting the lands of the south, the scribe of the grain, Paheri, justified ".
Accompanying Paheri in his tours of inspection, three assistants carrying bags, napkins and a stool.

• Before him (3rd register down) one finds a chariot harnessed to two horses and of which the reins and a whip are held one-handed by a groom, whilst in the other he holds the master's bow. By his attitude and his speech, he tries to calm the ardours of the animals : " Remain calm, don't be disobedient, excellent horse, beloved of his master, with whom the prince can rely on no matter what ".
The horse is an animal lately introduced into Egypt at the beginning of the New Kingdom. The Egyptian craftsmen never really knew how best to represent it, as with here, where the animals are very stiff.

• In majesty, the figure of Paheri faces the three registers, summarising the works of the fields during the three seasons of the Egyptian year. Thus is evoked the succession of months and years and thus the eternity to which he aspires.

 Works of the fields
The agricultural season is the first one represented, in the lower register. It is the peret (winter - spring) season..
It is the moment to turn over the land which has been softened previously by the rise in the water level of the Nile which has now abated. With the plough, drawn by oxen or men, or with the hoe, the land is worked, while other men sow the grain. These different methods of turning over the land probably correspond to different types of seedlings

The dialogues between the peasants describe to us an idyllic situation : " It is a beautiful day, it is cool ! Make haste, driver, drive the oxen, the Lord is there who watches us ". Another tells its friend : " Hasten with the work, that we might finish quickly ! " To which his friend answers : " I am going to do more work than that which the master expects of me ! "

To the extremity of this register one finds a representation of the standing master , a stick of office in one hand, and the sekhem-scepter in the other, supervising the good execution of the tasks and who proceeds toward the craft in the course of loading at the edge of the river. With the passage, he exhorts the peasants : " Hasten, farmers ! the fields of grain are divided (?). The flood was very large ! "
To which the young peasants, who pull the yoke of the plough, reply to him : "They say: we do (so), watch us ! [...] ", and the old peasant at the rear gives them the retort : " Doubly excellent are your words, son ! The year is good ! [...] "

The following register, above, shows the time of the harvest..
On the left, one sees that of the linen (flax): men and women pull the stems, gather them into containers, which will then be carried to be finally combed in order to de-husk them.
The old man who executes this last task challenges the young person who brings him a container of linen : " If you bring me 11009 of them, I am the man who will comb them all ! " To which the other retorts to him : " Get on with it, don't chatter, species of an old boaster of a peasant ! ".

Then come the wheat fields, of which one finds two varieties. One is great, with bearded ears, the other small with ears with no beards. The reapers are at work. They hold the ear stems with the left hand, and cut them, very high, with a small curved sickle, of which the blade of wood is encrusted with stone cutting teeth. One of the reapers holds his sickle under the arm while he drinks from a jar of water.
The reapers proclaim : " It is a beautiful day to be out in the field, the gentle wind of the North has arrived, the sky conforms to our wishes [...] ". Behind the reapers, a woman and a child stoop double to glean the ears. Another standing woman follows them with two baskets.
On the right, under a light construction which serves as a canopy, the jars of water and beer are either raised on pedestals of wood or resting on the ground. Some are removed and are fanned to be cooled, by using the porosity of the clay of the container

The upper register continues the one underneath and also reads from left to right.
Under the foreman's orders, which tell them " Hurry yourselves, redouble your steps ! Water is coming and will reach your baskets ! ", the carriers of baskets full of ears hurry towards the threshing area, passing two of their friends on the way there, the empty basket is returned to the field. (The image of the foreman is now almost totally destroyed,  above, top right.) The structure in rush plaited of the basket, can be easily seen. They proclaim : "The sun is hot " but " that it will provide fish in payment for the wheat ". In fact, the rise in the water level of the Nile, which takes place in summer, will not only bring the fertile alluvium soil but also a great variety of fish.

On the threshing area, five non muzzled oxen tread the ears  The heap is circular, higher at the periphery than at the centre. The drover addresses them : " Thresh, as if for youself, thresh (= trample) for yourself, Oh oxen ! Straw is for (you) to eat and wheat for your masters. Do not let your hearts calm themselves ! "
Then comes the moment of winnowing, see . To avoid the dust, the peasants wear a piece of material on the head (= the klaft). The winnowing is done by throwing to wind the mixture of grain and chaff. Some helpers collect the grain on the ground and bring it to the area of storage where it is recorded by scribes. The one who resides over the job is "the scribe of the grain, Djehuty-Nefer". Finally, the grain is put in bags and is carried to the silo for storage. This is represented as an enclosed space containing four silos as well as a sycamore.

Simultaneously, in the fourth register, which comes below the first three, one sees embarking on boats, the bags of grain. The text proclaims: "Loading the boats with wheat and barley […] the granaries are full and overflow, the barges are heavily laden and some grain escapes. But the master urges us to continue. See, our hearts are bronzed ! "
Their folded back mast proves that the ships will be allowed to drift northward, carried by the current, either to go towards another provincial storage place, or more probably bound for the capital. The pilot holds his depth probe, while some men draw water leaning over the side. This scene had already been summarised in the "Description of Egypt" . On the right and above, Paheri supervises the loading.

In all these pastoral scenes, it is of course the abundance which one wants to represent. Magically re-transcribed, it will follow the life of Paheri into the beyond.

2) The counting of livestock

On the lower part of the wall, on the left, a scene with a smaller sized Paheri watches, seated on a chair, writingPaheri is helped in its task by " His brother, whom he loves, the excellent scribe, perfect with language, Paheri, justified. "
Before him are his scribe's instruments, a roll of papyrus and a small jug of water, represented above the casket which contains them, according to Egyptian conventions.
The text is written in large hieroglyphs : " Counting the whole livestock by the prince of Anyt, the chief of the stewards of the fields of the south, he who has the confidence of his Master [...] ".
The animals are represented on four registers, brought by their respective keepers: oxen, cows and calves on the two upper registers; donkeys, goats and pigs to the other two registers. Notice this representation of the pigs, rare in Egyptian tombs. Two salient scenes represent fertility and the renewal of life.
The donkeys are driven by a donkey-drover carrying in one hand a whip and in the other, resting on his shoulder, a stick with a shackle. Some oxen are represented lying on the ground, shackled, waiting to be marked by the instrument which a man holds in the fire.
A man on the ground to be receiving a beating, punishment for not having executed his work correctly.

3) The receipt of gold.

Some gold mines existed in the desert to the East, and metal had to reach the Nile close to El Kab, therefore under the jurisdiction of Paheri.
The scene is located next to the one of the loading of grain into the boat. The leaders of the miners bring the gold, which they have extracted, for weighing. It is presents here in the form of rings (at the top) or in bags (below) which are weighed against weights in the shape of oxen. A knelt man supervises the indicator of the balance.
The text is very mutilated : " Receiving the gold from the leaders of the miners ... receiving what has been ordered ... by prince Paheri, whose is attentive without tiring, who does not fail in that which is entrusted to him ".
His brother Paheri also helps him here with the recording of weights.
A new scene of beating is represented, one of the intervening parties, probably having not delivered the expected quantities.

On right-hand side of these scenes  represents two boats. The first, the raised mast is tan, going up the Nile southwards. It comes therefore from the North, the direction in which the second boat heads, of which the mast is reclined. The two boats are similar, with a bridge cabin pierced by two small windows. Above each cabin, a chariot and horses. The decorations of the stern and prow are also identical. It is clearly concerns a boat (or boats) used for the movement of the nomarch.

4) Supervision of fishing activities and hunting of birds with a net.

These two activities are represented in the extension of the boats, therefore on two registers.
Fishing is done with a net, the caught fish being then brought to an old man who guts them. They are then put to dry. Two men prepare or repair a net one using a needle, the other twists a kind of spindle on his thigh.
Hunting for wild birds in the marshes, where they are abundant, is done here using nets. On the order of an old man whose torso appears out of the undergrowth of papyrus, the nine hunters fold back down net. Some fowl manage to escape of the net. The thus captured birds are plucked, gutted, then stored in earthenware jars.
A crane is brought toward Paheri, who supervises these activities, pressed on to a stick, with this text : " See the capture with nets of the wild birds and fish, having the happy face (seeing) all the works executed on the banks, by the nomarch Paheri ".

5) The wine-harvests.

 surmounts the scene of Paheri and his wife under a canopy, located in the middle of the wall.
The scene completes and finalises the summing up of the agricultural activities of the nomarch.

The grape is brought to the press, where it is trodden by men who hold on to a rope, hanging from a bar. Wine is then put into jars.
Besides its agricultural character, this scene also possesses a religious connotation. In fact, the grapevine and the grape are associated with the god Osiris and the inundation. The blood of the murdered god had in fact been put in relation with the first waters of the inundation, because this is also red, because of the ferric alluvia which they transport coming from the Atbara (in Sudan).


6) Paheri and his wife under a canopy.

This scene occupies the middle part of this area of the wall.

So, Paheri and his wife Henut-er-neheh, who closely embrace, are represented in pseudo perspective, seated under a light canopy The nomarch holds in his hands the two instruments of his power: the staff and the sekhem-scepter. Henut-er-neheh holds in her hand an open lotus flower, symbol of rebirth.
It represents a scene of presentation, rather similar to a presentation of tribute to the king, which shows Paheri, to whom six, arranged on two registers, bring all sorts of food and drinks.
This is done in the presence of the parents of Henut-er-neheh : her father, her mother, and her son " the officer of his Majesty, Teti ". Two women placed in front of them get them ointments and what could be cones of ointment to place on the head. One among them, Khnemet, is " musician of Nekhbet ". Behind these three main characters, eight other sons and daughters are represented. They are now almost obliterated.

7) Paheri and Prince Uadjmes

This scene of the upper register shows Paheri represented in a large size, seated on a cuboid seat, placed on a platform and holding on his knees the small prince, whom he affectionately surrounds with his arms. The latter is naked, wearing the lock of childhood on the side of his head.
The text proclaims : "  Rejoice the heart with all things, making a happy day, receiving the gifts, adoring Nekhebkau, by the guardian of the son of king Uadjmes, Paheri, justified ". Before this representation, a scene currently almost obliterated, showed the adults and children bringing some offerings. Some among them were children of Paheri. The text above is only partially legible, proclaiming : " bringing some offerings by his children and grandchildren, adoringly ... ".
The inscription of the lower register, where one sees a man and two women carrying materials and vases, makes allusion to the provision of New Year's Day goods.

  THE FUNERARY SCENES OF THE WEST WALL  

They occupy the north end of the west wall, which is the final though limited area. However, in this space, the priests concentrated a group of meaningful scenes, of which some are rather rare.
The group represents a funeral procession, real or fictional, with stops for ritual ceremonies, or at chapels for offerings. It concludes, in the lower register, with the image of the worship of Osiris by Paheri.

 Funeral Rites

1) The upper register is dedicated to the hauling of the mummy.

A couple of oxen are attached to the front of the sledge by a long rope tied at the level of their horns. A drover stimulates them by the help of a whip. The rope is also held by two pairs of porters. Between these, a man holds a perfume burner, while three other men define the Ka-sign with their raised arms.
The text, on two line, says : " Making a beautiful funeral for the nomarch Paheri; bringing the nomarch Paheri, justified, toward his tomb in the necropolis, in peace, in peace, before the great god. Going in peace towards the horizon, towards the Field of the Reeds, towards the Duat ".
The sledge, covered with a canopy, transports the mummy of Paheri. In front and behind him, two mourners, making a sign of mourning, play the role of Isis and Nephthys, who watch over the deceased as they watched over their brother Osiris
Behind comes the " chief lector " who holds in his hand a papyrus, and who says : " In peace, in peace, before the great god ". Two nobles, dressed with large wigs and holding (in the left hand for reasons of pseudo perspective) great staffs, close the procession. The text says : " Words spoken by the followers (of the procession) : Proceed in peace, in peace toward his tomb of the west, in order to receive gifts among the Ancients, as a follower of the great god ".

2) The next lower register

(reading from right to left)
• A priest holds a great incense container, the text is explicit : " Doing the incensement ".
Behind him, four men carry a casket. Two small mourners are represented underneath.


• Behind, two men execute the Muu dance, while welcoming the cortege in front off a representation of the (iteru) chapels (or per-nu) of Lower Egypt. These are buildings of a square section, narrow and elevated, with a rounded roof, whose lateral walls continue above of the roof. The caskets for shawabtis of the New Kingdom, intended to contain the canopic jars, freely adopt this shape. Muu dancers can take several different aspects. It is here, for Paheri, that one finds, for the first time, this representation of two dancers without garlands facing each other, Their clenched fists and raised thumbs nearly touch each other.

• The representations of the rectangles below remain mysterious. The one on the right probably represents a pool, if one accepts the two palms on the top.

• Next comes a man turned in the opposite direction to the cortege . This is an officiant holding in his hand a great roller and who welcomes the winding cortege with the words : " In peace before the great god ! ". Three priests, of which the Sem-priest (the second) pulls a barque carrying a tall chest, could be the chest containing the canopic jars protecting the deceased's viscera, because it is guarded by the two goddesses Isis and Nephthys, each wearing a tripartite wig.
Behind, an upright structure topped with a Kheker-frieze, of obscure significance, and another officiant priest holding a papyrus in his hand.

3) The third register down

Two men advance while holding in their hands two long stems of papyrus. They precede three others who pull a sledge, on which is represented the mysterious Tekenu, which could represent a sacrificial ritual. " Towards the west, towards the west ! [...] " they proclaim.
Behind the emblem of the perched falcon, symbol of the west, a boat is represented, probably a virtual navigation if one considers the man's position at the stern oar.
Behind, Paheri himself is knelt in front of an altar of the god Anubis, surmounted by a kheker-frieze. He makes a libation of water while proclaiming : " Approaching Anubis, lord of (?) of the god. The landing in Abydos by the nomarch Paheri ". The barque which finishes the register could be there just to illustrate this scene of navigation. Four men and the two mourners watch over the sarcophagus which rests on a base containing paws, head and lion's tail.

4) The bottom register


This ends with the representation, in majesty, of Osiris seated on his low cuboid throne, holding in his hands the two instruments of his power : the heqa-scepter and the nekhakha-flail. He is identified as " Osiris-khentyamentiu, the great god, Lord of eternity ". It therefore refers to Osiris, Lord of the West ( = the dead).
Before him is Paheri, in the position of worship, dedicating the piles of offerings accumulated before the god, and this text : " The nomarch of Nekheb, Paheri, justified, he says : Greetings to You, noble god, lord of the land, great in the nome of This, mighty in Abydos ! I am come towards you, my lord, in peace ! Give me peace ! Your offerings are yours. Harken to my voice ! I am one of your worshippers ".

Behind this scene are two sub-registers.
 the first register
In the upper half register, two men preceded by an officiant priest pull a sledge very similar to the one of the upper register, supporting the sarcophagus. They head toward a garden planted with palms and sycamores which surrounds an oblong pool. Ten altars are represented having the form of the per-nu already seen. Three are open, each containing a divinity, one with the head of dog, the two others are anthropomorphic divinities.
 the second register
In the lower half register, one first of all finds a partitioned rectangle, likely a representation of a place used by the two of the mysterious muu-dancers, who here wear their characteristic tall crowns made of plaited reedsBehind the two mourners, one finds a representation of Osiris " the great god ", standing under a canopy, facing in the opposite direction to the first.
The final representation shows an oblong space, surrounded by a kheker-frieze. It includes four men without arms facing each other, two by two. The significance of this scene remains problematic. In the tomb of Rekhmire, they are designated as " Gods, guardians of the great gates ".

SCENES ON THE EAST WALL

Here there are only two scenes, which seem to complete the scenes of the central section of the west wall. They represent some inside activities, whereas those of the other wall take place outside. The first is a great banquet to which many forebears, relatives and friends, participate. The second is a scene of worship accompanied by a long inscription which summarises the funerary program of the whole tomb.

1) North section
 The Offerings

At the extreme left (north) of this wall is a vertical decorative border, composed of coloured rectangles. These are are alternately blue, red, yellow then green, separated black/white/black lines. The whole is outlined with a green line.

In the opening scene, Paheri and his wife are represented in large size, seated on low seats whose feet have the shape of lion paws, these rest on a mat. Paheri is clothed with a loincloth and long transparent skirt, his head surmounted with a carefully detailed wig. In his hand he holds a piece of folded material. On his chest spreads a large wsr-necklace.

His wife Henut-er-neheh clasps him closely. She is clothed in a tight-fitting dress of linen with straps which leave her breast bare. She wears on her head a tripartite wig which is encircled by a chain. At the front, an open lotus flower is at the height of the head of Paheri. She too wishes the rebirth of her spouse and takes an active part in it.
Under his seat, a very alive scene as much loved by the Egyptians : a small tame monkey is attached. It is eating a fruit which it takes from a container before it.

Before the two spouses, is what remains of a table of offerings, probably over laden. This has been destroyed by the addition, at a later date, of side chambers. Above this is a rectangle (laid out in a grid) or placard, which includes a nominative list of the commodities and their quantities (one or two): different types of breads and cakes, honey, wine, meats ...
The inscription above the characters, in large hieroglyphs : " The nomarch, the superintendent of the priests of the goddess Nekhbet, the one who excellently satisfies his master, the scribe Paheri, justified. His wife whom he loves, of his place which he loves, the mistress of the house Henut-er-neheh, justified ".

The officiant who presents the offerings is the eldest son (in theory) of Paheri, Amenmes. He wears the panther skin characteristic of the sem-priest role which he plays. He says : " A funeral offering, of every kind of thing, for your kas. It is pure ! ". The formula is resumed in a short inscription before the couple : " Taking part in the meal of all good pure things ".


In the lower register (see bottom of  is a cohort of servants bringing various products. This is largely mutilated, on the right, by the digging of the chamber annexes. The brought products were recorded by the scribe, brother of the deceased, named here as Paheri. Behind him are the ones who help carry the scribe's materials. The " follower, Jr-hat-sen ", carries a roll of papyrus and on his back an unknown object. Next, the " follower, Teti ", who carries the scribe's sandals. Behind him, the " follower whom he loves in the place of his heart, Khaut ", carries his staff and his stool. He is followed by " the one who he loves in the place of his heart, Ipu ", who carries two sacks.

2) Middle section

 Guests at the Banquet

Behind Amenmes (officiating over the initial scene of this wall) are the guests for the banquet, who also face Paheri and his wife.

 In best place, two superimposed couples represented in intermediate size.
In best place, two superimposed couples represented in intermediate size.At the top, the prestigious great maternal father of Paheri, "  the chief of the sailors, Ahmes, son of Abana, justified by the great god
" and his wife Iput. Under her seat, is tied a dog, entirely hammered out.
Underneath is the couple formed by the father of Paheri, Atefrura, and by his wife Kem.
These two couples are represented in a solemn manner, in the same fashion as that of Paheri and Henut-er-neheh. Great wigs, bracelets and usekh-necklaces for the men; long tight-fitting dresses revealing the breasts for the women. Both couples are seated in front of a table of offerings, well garnished with meats, breads and vegetables.

Behind these two couples, are the others invited to the banquet, of lower status, represented on four levels: the men on the two upper ranks, the women on the two lower ranks. They are clothed in an identical manner to the main guests, but without bracelets. All wear on their heads a "cone of ointment", of which we don't actually know if it was indeed worn or if it symbolised perfumes and fragrances poured on the guests
They hold in their hands, for the most part, an open lotus flower toward the face.
We already mentioned, that it acts as a symbol of rebirth. Some wish to see in it also a representation of an hallucinogenic substance, which coupled with wine, would have allowed the participants to get into a state considered as auspicious to the communication with the world of the gods. However, chemical analysis has never recovered an narcotic agent in lotus flowers.

The family relationship is indicated next to every character, in general they connect to Paheri himself : " his brother "; " the son of the sister of his grandmother ", etc. ... but in the two lower ranks some of the relatives of Kem are named : " her son ", " her daughter "...


• In the upper rank, the first character, Herary, is the brother of Paheri. A servant offers him a metal bowl to drink. Behind him, Teti, second cousin of Paheri, " courtier ". The third character is an uncle " brother of his mother ", Meky This one refuses the bowl which the servant holds out, who insists and declares : " Command me to get something and I will leave you alone ". Paheri's servants are very persistent in the attention to visitors, as they should be.

• The second rank includes the brothers of Paheri: Iahmes and Pamiu, some servants arrange the cone of ointment or perfume on their heads.

• Then come the female relatives, with first of all the three daughters of Kem. The third, Amensat, probably already mentioned, refuses the bowl held out by the servant who insists "  For your Ka ! Drink until intoxicated ! Make it a happy day ! Oh listen to what your companion says to you, do not be anguished (?)". Her companion and distant cousin Nub-mehy tells the servant : " Give me eighteen bowls of wine ! See, I must like (to drink) until intoxicated. My insides are as dry as straw ! ".

• In the fourth rank are represented the musicians who come with the banquet a harpist, flutist, dancer (holding two pieces of wood which she has to make slap together), and the chantresses who keep the rhythm of the monotonous chant, while clapping their hands.
Behind the musicians are Amensat and Tetuta, great-aunts of Paheri; the latter is accompanied by her daughters Zab, Ty and Nubemnehebt.

3) South section


Worshipping the Gods
This includes a large sized representation of Paheri and Henut-er-neheh making offering to the gods.

• Paheri is as usual, standing, left leg forward. He holds in his hands two censers with which he dedicates the numerous offerings represented before him.

• Behind Henut-er-neheh, three of their children are represented at a smaller scale. At the top, " his eldest daughter, whom he loves, Tatetes ", in the middle, " his son, whom he loves, Amenmes ". Below, " his son, Rahetep ". The first two are the eldest of the surviving children.

• The inscription belonging to Paheri is drawn in large hieroglyphs : " Resting in peace in the mountain of the west. Coming forth upon the land to see the solar disk. Opening the ways for the perfect spirit (Akh) which is in the necropolis. That it may be given to him to walk out, to enter and to go forth like a living Ba (returned improperly as soul). To give offerings (to him) who is in the underworld (the Duat). To present all good and pure things to Ra-Horakhty (lit: Ra of the Two Horizons), to Nekhbet, goddess of the sky, to Hathor mistress of her mountain, to Osiris, the great God, to Anubis, master of the necropolis. That they may give the scent of the soft breath of the wind of the North. ". And it says : " For the nomarch of Nekheb, Paheri, justified, (for) his wife, his beloved in the place of his heart, the mistress of the house, Henut-er-neheh, justified. ".

• Here is concentrated the main part of the message of the tomb.
By their performed magic, the signs and the scenes are going to make the funerary destiny occur repeatedly for ever, which Paheri wishes for himself and to which he associates his close relations.

• The offerings are various. Notice at the top, seven containers for the seven ritual sacred oils. These oils are those used in the ritual of the Opening of the Mouth and Eyes practised on the mummy before it is taken down to the vault.

• Behind the offerings, four musicians rattle sistrums with Hathoric heads. The rattling noise which they give out is judicious to reproduce the rustling of the papyri and to attract the goddess Hathor so that she welcomes the deceased within, allowing him thus to regenerate. They also hold in their hands the menat-necklace, another Hathoric symbol. A probable priest of Nekhbet holds out a stem of lotus, but the scene is very damaged.

• Underneath, the lower register finishes the banquet scenes.
The butchers cut up two oxen. The piece of choice, the right foreleg (khepesh) is brought to the guests. Besides its nourishing role, the khepesh also had a symbolic role in the ceremony of the Opening of the Mouth and Eyes. Ribs of the animal are also represented.
In addition to the meat are brought drinks, a living goose, breads and flowers, by an uncle of the deceased, by marriage. Next, bearing a jar of wine and a live goose is " the gardener, Sennefer " and after him " the gardener, Uhemu " with white cakes and lotus flowers.

• At the south end of the wall is a vertical border of coloured rectangles, similar to that at the northern end.

CAVETTO CORNICE & THE CEILING OF THE TOMB
At the top of the east and west walls is a narrow frieze of large colourful hieroglyphs

1) On the west wall
The king wishes to make an invocatory offering to Osiris-khentyamentiu, lord of the west and to the gods who are in the necropolis. May they give the scent of the soft breeze of the North, that he may accomplish his transformations into a living Ba. For the Ka of Osiris, the nomarch Paheri, justified. May you eat cakes of black (?) barley. May you are given a stick for Tanent. May you eat of bread and drink a bowl of milk from the altar of the great god, and may you receive the gifts. May there be offerings for you in Ankh-tauy. May you have water according to your desire. May you breathe the soft breeze of the North, trusted before Anubis, Osiris, the nomarch Paheri, justified. ".

2) On the east wall
The king wishes to make an invocatory offering to Nekhbet, the White One of Nekhen, mistress of Fak, and Hathor in her mountain; to Osiris, lord of eternity, to Anubis lord of the necropolis, to the mountain of the west which shelters (?) the body, embrace the bones and where the noble mummy rests. That they may give the invocatory offering (consisting of) bread, beer, heads of livestock, birds, linen, incense, ointment and all good pure things which one offers to a god. The offerings from the beginning of the seasons and which is left at the altar daily, for the Ka of the nomarch of Nekheb, Paheri, justified. He says : "Oh you who give bread and beer to the lowly ones who are in the house of Osiris, give bread and beer two times per day to the Ba who is with you, the blessed before Osiris, the nomarch of Nekheb, Paheri, justified". ".

The middle line on the ceiling and the two side lines above the khekher ornamentation are too mutilated to be read.

THE WALL THE BACK
Paheri was a well informed and prudent man, concerned with detail.
Thus, the inscription on the wall at the back is remarkable by its length. The themes are those usually found : the deceased's merits, the prayers for a happy future, and the desire to see the visitors reciting the offering formulas in order to provide for the Ka. Unfortunately the inscription doesn't include a biography.

Back Wall, and Statues in Niche
1) Lines 1 to 21

These include some prayers to address the gods, so that they transfer the offerings, which were presented by the king, to Paheri. The invoked gods are : " Amon, lord of the thrones of the Two Lands "; " Nekhbet, the White One of Nekhen, Lady of the sky"; " Hathor, mistress of her mountain "; " Ptah-Sokar, lord of the Secret Chamber"; "Anubis, lord of Ro-Setau (= entry of the necropolis) ".

Then follows a long enumeration of offerings, provided daily or on the occasion of different festivals.
One also finds by way of an apology which Paheri even addresses him : " Oh excellent satisfier of the heart of his master, may you enter and leave, your heart expanded (= happy), in the favour of the lord of the gods. A beautiful funeral after a long life of excellent service. When old age is there and you arrive at your place in the sarcophagus and join the land in the necropolis of the west, become a living Ba. Oh may you be able to enjoy bread, water and breath. May you be able to transform into a heron, swallow, falcon, egret, according to your desire. May you cross (the Nile) in the barque without being driven back and having to sail with the current. May your life come back to you a second time. May your Ba not separate from your body. May your Ba be strong with the Akhus (= glorified spirits). May the nobles Bas speak to you. [......] for the Ka of the governor of Nekheb (= El Kab), for the governor of Anyt (= Esna), responsible of the grain of Ant (= Denderah) to Nekheb, the most attentive, and devoid of fatigue, the scribe, Paheri, justified. ".
Further : " May the doors of the horizon open up for you, and the bolts be untied for you. May you arrive in the hall of the two Ma'ats (= the room of judgement, where the deceased's heart will be weighed before the courthouse of the gods) and that the god who is in it greets you [...] May you move according to your desire, may you leave every morning and return to your house every evening. May a lamp to be lit for you every night until the light (of the sun) illuminates your chest. May one say to you : Come, come, into your house of the living ! May you see Ra in the horizon of the sky and Amon at his rising. May your wakening be good every morning, destroying completely for you all demons. May you pass your eternity with a happy heart by the god's favour that is in you, your heart (= here, stomach) torture you not, and your food remain in its place. ".

2) Lines 22 to 35: Paheri speaks and praises his own merits

My own heart guided me on the road of those who are appreciated by the king ! "
Paheri also makes reference to elements of the " negative " confession, which one finds inscribed in the Book of the Dead and which enumerate some acts which the deceased hasn't - theoretically ! - made. Paheri did (or didn't do) all this because " I knew the god who is in the man ".

3) Line 36 to the end

Listen, you who will come into existence, I speak to you and there is no deception in what I say ! "
These are the recommendations to the living, inviting them to recite the ritual formulas for him, to read his acts of which he assures authenticity and to be inspired by it for their greater good.
" If you recite the invocatory offering (from the top) in accordance with the writings; with the vocal expression according to the formulae of old, as a god would do it. And whoever will raise his hands in prayer, may you do it in a correct manner, and may he make his devotions according to the rules, according to the reading of the commands here inscribed. May you partake of the thousands of breads, of the thousands of beer, and of hundred of thousand all good pure things, for the Ka of Osiris, the governor of Nekheb and Anyt [...] Paheri, justified. "
And the last sentence concludes this long inscription : " nefer sedjem ten : May your hearing (of this) be pleasant to you ".

4) The niche

The niche is oblong, 1.73 m. deep, 1.50 m. wide and 1,80 m. high. The whole can be compared to a gigantic curved stela, entirely covered by a very long inscription, engraved in small hieroglyphs. These inscriptions start 50 cm. above the original level of the floor, of which they are separated by two horizontal bands.
It includes three statues built directly from the rock in very high relief. The three characters are seated and watch toward the entry. Paheri is represented in mummiform, but the arms are folded on the chest. To his left, one finds his mother Kem and on his right, his wife Henut-er-neheh. Both surround the deceased with their arms. All representations have been disfigured.

The niche is engraved on its internal faces. Above, a kheker-frieze separates the statues from the rest of the wall-stela.
The head of Paheri is framed symmetrically by his two main honorary titles : "  Nomarch of Nekheb (= El Kab), scribe ", and " nomarch of Anyt (= Esna), scribe ". The two women are " his mother, whom he loves, the mistress of the house, Kem, justified " and " his wife, whom he loves, the mistress of the house, Henut-er-neheh ".

The sides of the niche:


• On the west part , "the nomarch, the superintendant of the priests, the scribe ". Paheri and his wife are sat in front of a table of offerings, while his son Amenmes dedicates the food products : " Performing the ceremony to dedicate the offerings, by his son, whom he loves, Amenmes. He says : May you breathe the breeze of the North; may you smell frankincense and incense. ".
And also : " For your Ka, it is pure ! ".
A young child wearing the lock of childhood stands at the side of Henut-er-neheh. It could be one of the grandchildren or the second prince, Uadjmes. Under the table is inscribed : " Partaking of all good things ". Under this scene are located six sons and daughters of Paheri.

• On the east part  Paheri himself is offering to two royal children and to his parents, who raised one of them. These are, on the first chair " the king's son, Uadjmes " and then " his brother, whom he loves, the son of king Amenmes ". On the second chair, the " tutor of the son of king Uadjmes, Atefrura, justified " and the " mistress of the house, Kem ".
Under the altar are the symbols for various offerings, beneath most of them is an associated hieroglyphic sign designating "  thousands ".
Under this scene, nine sons and daughters of Kem, including " her son, who makes their name live, the nomarch of Nekheb, Paheri ".

Paheri, grandson of the prestigious Ahmose son of Abana, doesn't fail to ensure the connection, as in the tomb of this famous ancestor . For it was he who engraved the inscription in his grandfather's tomb, as can be seen before the figure which represents him, there at the feet of Ahmose : " By the son of his daughter,

THE FUNERARY SCENES OF THE WEST WALL



They occupy the north end of the west wall, which is the final though limited area. However, in this space, the priests concentrated a group of meaningful scenes, of which some are rather rare.

The group represents a funeral procession, real or fictional, with stops for ritual ceremonies, or at chapels for offerings. It concludes, in the lower register, with the image of the worship of Osiris by Paheri.





 West Wall, North End: Funeral Rites



1) The upper register is dedicated to the hauling of the mummy.




A couple of oxen are attached to the front of the sledge by a long rope tied at the level of their horns. A drover stimulates them by the help of a whip. The rope is also held by two pairs of porters. Between these, a man holds a perfume burner, while three other men define the Ka-sign with their raised arms.

The text, on two line, says : " Making a beautiful funeral for the nomarch Paheri; bringing the nomarch Paheri, justified, toward his tomb in the necropolis, in peace, in peace, before the great god. Going in peace towards the horizon, towards the Field of the Reeds, towards the Duat ".









The sledge, covered with a canopy, transports the mummy of Paheri. In front and behind him, two mourners, making a sign of mourning, play the role of Isis and Nephthys, who watch over the deceased as they watched over their brother Osiris

Behind comes the " chief lector " who holds in his hand a papyrus, and who says : " In peace, in peace, before the great god ". Two nobles, dressed with large wigs and holding (in the left hand for reasons of pseudo perspective) great staffs, close the procession. The text says : " Words spoken by the followers (of the procession) : Proceed in peace, in peace toward his tomb of the west, in order to receive gifts among the Ancients, as a follower of the great god ".



2) The next lower register



(reading from right to left)

• A priest holds a great incense container, the text is explicit : " Doing the incensement ".

Behind him, four men carry a casket. Two small mourners are represented underneath.










• Behind, two men execute the Muu dance, while welcoming the cortege in front off a representation of the (iteru) chapels (or per-nu) of Lower Egypt. These are buildings of a square section, narrow and elevated, with a rounded roof, whose lateral walls continue above of the roof. The caskets for shawabtis of the New Kingdom, intended to contain the canopic jars, freely adopt this shape. Muu dancers can take several different aspects. It is here, for Paheri, that one finds, for the first time, this representation of two dancers without garlands facing each other, Their clenched fists and raised thumbs nearly touch each other.



• The representations of the rectangles below remain mysterious. The one on the right probably represents a pool, if one accepts the two palms on the top.



• Next comes a man turned in the opposite direction to the cortege  This is an officiant holding in his hand a great roller and who welcomes the winding cortege with the words : " In peace before the great god ! ". Three priests, of which the Sem-priest (the second) pulls a barque carrying a tall chest, could be the chest containing the canopic jars protecting the deceased's viscera, because it is guarded by the two goddesses Isis and Nephthys, each wearing a tripartite wig.

Behind, an upright structure topped with a Kheker-frieze, of obscure significance, and another officiant priest holding a papyrus in his hand.



3) The third register down











Two men advance while holding in their hands two long stems of papyrus. They precede three others who pull a sledge, on which is represented the mysterious Tekenu, which could represent a sacrificial ritual. " Towards the west, towards the west ! [...] " they proclaim.

Behind the emblem of the perched falcon, symbol of the west, a boat is represented, probably a virtual navigation if one considers the man's position at the stern oar.

Behind, Paheri himself is knelt in front of an altar of the god Anubis, surmounted by a kheker-frieze. He makes a libation of water while proclaiming : " Approaching Anubis, lord of (?) of the god. The landing in Abydos by the nomarch Paheri ". The barque which finishes the register could be there just to illustrate this scene of navigation. Four men and the two mourners watch over the sarcophagus which rests on a base containing paws, head and lion's tail.



4) The bottom register










This ends with the representation, in majesty, of Osiris seated on his low cuboid throne, holding in his hands the two instruments of his power : the heqa-scepter and the nekhakha-flail. He is identified as " Osiris-khentyamentiu, the great god, Lord of eternity ". It therefore refers to Osiris, Lord of the West ( = the dead).

Before him is Paheri, in the position of worship, dedicating the piles of offerings accumulated before the god, and this text : " The nomarch of Nekheb, Paheri, justified, he says : Greetings to You, noble god, lord of the land, great in the nome of This, mighty in Abydos ! I am come towards you, my lord, in peace ! Give me peace ! Your offerings are yours. Harken to my voice ! I am one of your worshippers ".



Behind this scene are two sub-registers.








In the upper half register, two men preceded by an officiant priest pull a sledge very similar to the one of the upper register, supporting the sarcophagus. They head toward a garden planted with palms and sycamores which surrounds an oblong pool. Ten altars are represented having the form of the per-nu already seen. Three are open, each containing a divinity, one with the head of dog, the two others are anthropomorphic divinities.

In the lower half register, one first of all finds a partitioned rectangle, likely a representation of a place used by the two of the mysterious muu-dancers, who here wear their characteristic tall crowns made of plaited reeds

Behind the two mourners, one finds a representation of Osiris " the great god ", standing under a canopy, facing in the opposite direction to the first.

The final representation shows an oblong space, surrounded by a kheker-frieze. It includes four men without arms facing each other, two by two. The significance of this scene remains problematic. In the tomb of Rekhmire, they are designated as " Gods, guardians of the great gates ".



THE EAST WALL







Here there are only two scenes, which seem to complete the scenes of the central section of the west wall. They represent some inside activities, whereas those of the other wall take place outside. The first is a great banquet to which many forebears, relatives and friends, participate. The second is a scene of worship accompanied by a long inscription which summarises the funerary program of the whole tomb.



1) North section



East Wall, North End: The Offerings




At the extreme left (north) of this wall is a vertical decorative border, composed of coloured rectangles. These are are alternately blue, red, yellow then green, separated black/white/black lines. The whole is outlined with a green line.



In the opening scene, Paheri and his wife are represented in large size, seated on low seats whose feet have the shape of lion paws, these rest on a mat. Paheri is clothed with a loincloth and long transparent skirt, his head surmounted with a carefully detailed wig. In his hand he holds a piece of folded material. On his chest spreads a large wsr-necklace.



His wife Henut-er-neheh clasps him closely. She is clothed in a tight-fitting dress of linen with straps which leave her breast bare. She wears on her head a tripartite wig which is encircled by a chain. At the front, an open lotus flower is at the height of the head of Paheri. She too wishes the rebirth of her spouse and takes an active part in it.

Under his seat, a very alive scene as much loved by the Egyptians : a small tame monkey is attached. It is eating a fruit which it takes from a container before it.



Before the two spouses, is what remains of a table of offerings, probably over laden. This has been destroyed by the addition, at a later date, of side chambers. Above this is a rectangle (laid out in a grid) or placard, which includes a nominative list of the commodities and their quantities (one or two): different types of breads and cakes, honey, wine, meats ...

The inscription above the characters, in large hieroglyphs : " The nomarch, the superintendent of the priests of the goddess Nekhbet, the one who excellently satisfies his master, the scribe Paheri, justified. His wife whom he loves, of his place which he loves, the mistress of the house Henut-er-neheh, justified ".



The officiant who presents the offerings is the eldest son (in theory) of Paheri, Amenmes. He wears the panther skin characteristic of the sem-priest role which he plays. He says : " A funeral offering, of every kind of thing, for your kas. It is pure ! ". The formula is resumed in a short inscription before the couple : " Taking part in the meal of all good pure things ".






In the lower register  is a cohort of servants bringing various products. This is largely mutilated, on the right, by the digging of the chamber annexes. The brought products were recorded by the scribe, brother of the deceased, named here as Paheri. Behind him are the ones who help carry the scribe's materials. The " follower, Jr-hat-sen ", carries a roll of papyrus and on his back an unknown object. Next, the " follower, Teti ", who carries the scribe's sandals. Behind him, the " follower whom he loves in the place of his heart, Khaut ", carries his staff and his stool. He is followed by " the one who he loves in the place of his heart, Ipu ", who carries two sacks.



2) Middle section





East Wall, Centre: Guests at the Banquet



view 04 view 07



Behind Amenmes (officiating over the initial scene of this wall) are the guests for the banquet, who also face Paheri and his wife.



In best place, two superimposed couples represented in intermediate size, .

In best place, two superimposed couples represented in intermediate size. At the top, the prestigious great maternal father of Paheri, " the chief of the sailors, Ahmes, son of Abana, justified by the great god " and his wife Iput. Under her seat, is tied a dog, entirely hammered out.

Underneath is the couple formed by the father of Paheri, Atefrura, and by his wife Kem.

These two couples are represented in a solemn manner, in the same fashion as that of Paheri and Henut-er-neheh. Great wigs, bracelets and usekh-necklaces for the men; long tight-fitting dresses revealing the breasts for the women. Both couples are seated in front of a table of offerings, well garnished with meats, breads and vegetables.



Behind these two couples, are the others invited to the banquet, of lower status, represented on four levels: the men on the two upper ranks, the women on the two lower ranks. They are clothed in an identical manner to the main guests, but without bracelets. All wear on their heads a "cone of ointment", of which we don't actually know if it was indeed worn or if it symbolised perfumes and fragrances poured on the guests


They hold in their hands, for the most part, an open lotus flower toward the face.

We already mentioned, that it acts as a symbol of rebirth. Some wish to see in it also a representation of an hallucinogenic substance, which coupled with wine, would have allowed the participants to get into a state considered as auspicious to the communication with the world of the gods. However, chemical analysis has never recovered an narcotic agent in lotus flowers.



The family relationship is indicated next to every character, in general they connect to Paheri himself : " his brother "; " the son of the sister of his grandmother ", etc. ... but in the two lower ranks some of the relatives of Kem are named : " her son ", " her daughter "...

















• In the upper rank, the first character, Herary, is the brother of Paheri. A servant offers him a metal bowl to drink. Behind him, Teti, second cousin of Paheri, " courtier ". The third character is an uncle " brother of his mother ", Meky This one refuses the bowl which the servant holds out, who insists and declares : " Command me to get something and I will leave you alone ". Paheri's servants are very persistent in the attention to visitors, as they should be.



• The second rank includes the brothers of Paheri: Iahmes and Pamiu, some servants arrange the cone of ointment or perfume on their heads.



• Then come the female relatives, with first of all the three daughters of Kem. The third, Amensat, probably already mentioned, refuses the bowl held out by the servant who insists" For your Ka ! Drink until intoxicated ! Make it a happy day ! Oh listen to what your companion says to you, do not be anguished (?)". Her companion and distant cousin Nub-mehy tells the servant : " Give me eighteen bowls of wine ! See, I must like (to drink) until intoxicated. My insides are as dry as straw ! ".



• In the fourth rank are represented the musicians who come with the banquet a harpist, flutist, dancer (holding two pieces of wood which she has to make slap together), and the chantresses who keep the rhythm of the monotonous chant, while clapping their hands.

Behind the musicians are Amensat and Tetuta, great-aunts of Paheri; the latter is accompanied by her daughters Zab, Ty and Nubemnehebt.



3) South section





East Wall, South End: Worshipping the Gods



This includes a large sized representation of Paheri and Henut-er-neheh making offering to the gods.



• Paheri is as usual, standing, left leg forward. He holds in his hands two censers with which he dedicates the numerous offerings represented before him.



• Behind Henut-er-neheh, three of their children are represented at a smaller scale. At the top, " his eldest daughter, whom he loves, Tatetes ", in the middle, " his son, whom he loves, Amenmes ". Below, " his son, Rahetep ". The first two are the eldest of the surviving children.



• The inscription belonging to Paheri is drawn in large hieroglyphs : " Resting in peace in the mountain of the west. Coming forth upon the land to see the solar disk. Opening the ways for the perfect spirit (Akh) which is in the necropolis. That it may be given to him to walk out, to enter and to go forth like a living Ba (returned improperly as soul). To give offerings (to him) who is in the underworld (the Duat). To present all good and pure things to Ra-Horakhty (lit: Ra of the Two Horizons), to Nekhbet, goddess of the sky, to Hathor mistress of her mountain, to Osiris, the great God, to Anubis, master of the necropolis. That they may give the scent of the soft breath of the wind of the North. ". And it says : " For the nomarch of Nekheb, Paheri, justified, (for) his wife, his beloved in the place of his heart, the mistress of the house, Henut-er-neheh, justified. ".



• Here is concentrated the main part of the message of the tomb.

By their performed magic, the signs and the scenes are going to make the funerary destiny occur repeatedly for ever, which Paheri wishes for himself and to which he associates his close relations.



• The offerings are various. Notice at the top, seven containers for the seven ritual sacred oils. These oils are those used in the ritual of the Opening of the Mouth and Eyes practised on the mummy before it is taken down to the vault.



• Behind the offerings, four musicians rattle sistrums with Hathoric heads. The rattling noise which they give out is judicious to reproduce the rustling of the papyri and to attract the goddess Hathor so that she welcomes the deceased within, allowing him thus to regenerate. They also hold in their hands the menat-necklace, another Hathoric symbol. A probable priest of Nekhbet holds out a stem of lotus, but the scene is very damaged.



• Underneath, the lower register finishes the banquet scenes.

The butchers cut up two oxen. The piece of choice, the right foreleg (khepesh) is brought to the guests. Besides its nourishing role, the khepesh also had a symbolic role in the ceremony of the Opening of the Mouth and Eyes. Ribs of the animal are also represented.

In addition to the meat are brought drinks, a living goose, breads and flowers, by an uncle of the deceased, by marriage. Next, bearing a jar of wine and a live goose is " the gardener, Sennefer " and after him " the gardener, Uhemu " with white cakes and lotus flowers.



• At the south end of the wall is a vertical border of coloured rectangles, similar to that at the northern end.



THE FRIEZE AND CEILING INSCRIPTIONS






At the top of the east and west walls is a narrow frieze of large colourful hieroglyphs



1) On the west wall

" The king wishes to make an invocatory offering to Osiris-khentyamentiu, lord of the west and to the gods who are in the necropolis. May they give the scent of the soft breeze of the North, that he may accomplish his transformations into a living Ba. For the Ka of Osiris, the nomarch Paheri, justified. May you eat cakes of black (?) barley. May you are given a stick for Tanent. May you eat of bread and drink a bowl of milk from the altar of the great god, and may you receive the gifts. May there be offerings for you in Ankh-tauy. May you have water according to your desire. May you breathe the soft breeze of the North, trusted before Anubis, Osiris, the nomarch Paheri, justified. ".



2) On the east wall

" The king wishes to make an invocatory offering to Nekhbet, the White One of Nekhen, mistress of Fak, and Hathor in her mountain; to Osiris, lord of eternity, to Anubis lord of the necropolis, to the mountain of the west which shelters (?) the body, embrace the bones and where the noble mummy rests. That they may give the invocatory offering (consisting of) bread, beer, heads of livestock, birds, linen, incense, ointment and all good pure things which one offers to a god. The offerings from the beginning of the seasons and which is left at the altar daily, for the Ka of the nomarch of Nekheb, Paheri, justified. He says : "Oh you who give bread and beer to the lowly ones who are in the house of Osiris, give bread and beer two times per day to the Ba who is with you, the blessed before Osiris, the nomarch of Nekheb, Paheri, justified". ".



The middle line on the ceiling and the two side lines above the khekher ornamentation are too mutilated to be read.



THE BACK WALL





Paheri was a well informed and prudent man, concerned with detail.

Thus, the inscription on the wall at the back is remarkable by its length. The themes are those usually found : the deceased's merits, the prayers for a happy future, and the desire to see the visitors reciting the offering formulas in order to provide for the Ka. Unfortunately the inscription doesn't include a biography.





Back Wall, and Statues in Niche






1) Lines 1 to 21



These include some prayers to address the gods, so that they transfer the offerings, which were presented by the king, to Paheri. The invoked gods are : " Amon, lord of the thrones of the Two Lands "; " Nekhbet, the White One of Nekhen, Lady of the sky"; " Hathor, mistress of her mountain "; " Ptah-Sokar, lord of the Secret Chamber"; "Anubis, lord of Ro-Setau (= entry of the necropolis) ".



Then follows a long enumeration of offerings, provided daily or on the occasion of different festivals.

One also finds by way of an apology which Paheri even addresses him : " Oh excellent satisfier of the heart of his master, may you enter and leave, your heart expanded (= happy), in the favour of the lord of the gods. A beautiful funeral after a long life of excellent service. When old age is there and you arrive at your place in the sarcophagus and join the land in the necropolis of the west, become a living Ba. Oh may you be able to enjoy bread, water and breath. May you be able to transform into a heron, swallow, falcon, egret, according to your desire. May you cross (the Nile) in the barque without being driven back and having to sail with the current. May your life come back to you a second time. May your Ba not separate from your body. May your Ba be strong with the Akhus (= glorified spirits). May the nobles Bas speak to you. [......] for the Ka of the governor of Nekheb (= El Kab), for the governor of Anyt (= Esna), responsible of the grain of Ant (= Denderah) to Nekheb, the most attentive, and devoid of fatigue, the scribe, Paheri, justified. ".

Further : " May the doors of the horizon open up for you, and the bolts be untied for you. May you arrive in the hall of the two Ma'ats (= the room of judgement, where the deceased's heart will be weighed before the courthouse of the gods) and that the god who is in it greets you [...] May you move according to your desire, may you leave every morning and return to your house every evening. May a lamp to be lit for you every night until the light (of the sun) illuminates your chest. May one say to you : Come, come, into your house of the living ! May you see Ra in the horizon of the sky and Amon at his rising. May your wakening be good every morning, destroying completely for you all demons. May you pass your eternity with a happy heart by the god's favour that is in you, your heart (= here, stomach) torture you not, and your food remain in its place. ".



2) Lines 22 to 35: Paheri speaks and praises his own merits



" My own heart guided me on the road of those who are appreciated by the king ! "

Paheri also makes reference to elements of the " negative " confession, which one finds inscribed in the Book of the Dead and which enumerate some acts which the deceased hasn't - theoretically ! - made. Paheri did (or didn't do) all this because " I knew the god who is in the man ".



3) Line 36 to the end



" Listen, you who will come into existence, I speak to you and there is no deception in what I say ! "

These are the recommendations to the living, inviting them to recite the ritual formulas for him, to read his acts of which he assures authenticity and to be inspired by it for their greater good.

" If you recite the invocatory offering (from the top) in accordance with the writings; with the vocal expression according to the formulae of old, as a god would do it. And whoever will raise his hands in prayer, may you do it in a correct manner, and may he make his devotions according to the rules, according to the reading of the commands here inscribed. May you partake of the thousands of breads, of the thousands of beer, and of hundred of thousand all good pure things, for the Ka of Osiris, the governor of Nekheb and Anyt [...] Paheri, justified. "

And the last sentence concludes this long inscription : " nefer sedjem ten : May your hearing (of this) be pleasant to you ".



4) The niche



The niche is oblong, 1.73 m. deep, 1.50 m. wide and 1,80 m. high. The whole can be compared to a gigantic curved stela, entirely covered by a very long inscription, engraved in small hieroglyphs. These inscriptions start 50 cm. above the original level of the floor, of which they are separated by two horizontal bands.

It includes three statues built directly from the rock in very high relief. The three characters are seated and watch toward the entry. Paheri is represented in mummiform, but the arms are folded on the chest. To his left, one finds his mother Kem and on his right, his wife Henut-er-neheh. Both surround the deceased with their arms. All representations have been disfigured.



The niche is engraved on its internal faces. Above, a kheker-frieze separates the statues from the rest of the wall-stela.

The head of Paheri is framed symmetrically by his two main honorary titles : " Nomarch of Nekheb (= El Kab), scribe ", and " nomarch of Anyt (= Esna), scribe ". The two women are " his mother, whom he loves, the mistress of the house, Kem, justified " and " his wife, whom he loves, the mistress of the house, Henut-er-neheh ".



The sides of the niche:










• On the west part , "the nomarch, the superintendant of the priests, the scribe ". Paheri and his wife are sat in front of a table of offerings, while his son Amenmes dedicates the food products : " Performing the ceremony to dedicate the offerings, by his son, whom he loves, Amenmes. He says : May you breathe the breeze of the North; may you smell frankincense and incense. ".

And also : " For your Ka, it is pure ! ".

A young child wearing the lock of childhood stands at the side of Henut-er-neheh. It could be one of the grandchildren or the second prince, Uadjmes. Under the table is inscribed : " Partaking of all good things ". Under this scene are located six sons and daughters of Paheri.



• On the east part , Paheri himself is offering to two royal children and to his parents, who raised one of them. These are, on the first chair " the king's son, Uadjmes " and then " his brother, whom he loves, the son of king Amenmes ". On the second chair, the " tutor of the son of king Uadjmes, Atefrura, justified " and the " mistress of the house, Kem ".

Under the altar are the symbols for various offerings, beneath most of them is an associated hieroglyphic sign designating " thousands ".

Under this scene, nine sons and daughters of Kem, including " her son, who makes their name live, the nomarch of Nekheb, Paheri ".



Paheri, grandson of the prestigious Ahmose son of Abana, doesn't fail to ensure the connection, as in the tomb of this famous ancestor. For it was he who engraved the inscription in his grandfather's tomb, as can be seen before the figure which represents him, there at the feet of Ahmose : " By the son of his daughter, the head of works in this tomb, perpetuating the name of his mother's father; the scribe of Amon, Paheri, justified.".





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