Around 1720-1710 BCE, Egypt began to be invaded by a people "of obscure race",
who became known as the Hyk-Sos, "shepherd kings".
Some of the Hyksos may have been Hurrian or Hittite, but no firm
evidence has been discovered to confirm their origins fully. They were
by no means the first Asiatics to settle in Egypt, prompting some to
suggest that there was no major battle, just a steady influx of settlers
who worked themselves into positions of power while retaining their own
cultural differences. Evidence from the excavation at Tell el-Dab'a,
confirms that the settlement was constantly evolving and changing as the
new cultures adapted to the Egyptian way of life. Settlements
discovered in Tell el-Ajjul (southern Palestinian), Ebla (Syrian) and
Byblos (Lebanon) share many characteristics with the settlement at Tell
These Hyksos melted easily into Egyptian society at first; eventually they became very powerful,
and finally, in a coup, they came to rule the whole of Northern Egypt,
imposing one of their people as the legitimate Pharaoh.
They were able to accomplish this because they took advantage of a time
when the dynasty of Pharaohs came to an end, because the Pharaoh had no
son to succeed him.
This was usually the sign of the end of a dynasty and the beginning of another,
During the Hyksos rule of Lower Egypt, they established their capital in the city of Avaris in the Delta,
and the legitimate line of Pharaohs had to move to Thebes (now Luxor) in the South, ruling only over Upper Egypt.
The Hyksos brought with them knowledge of bronze weapons, chariots and
composite bows. But it is not clear that they were required to use this
military know-how to take control of upper Egypt.
The Hyksos Pharaohs were always desperate to prove their (non-existent, really)
legitimacy, and furious because the true secrets of king-making were never delivered to them. They adopted traditional Egyptian
names, and yet curious ones; Apophis (Apepi) for example is the other name of Seth, the evil brother who slew Osiris.
As for the legitimate line of Pharaohs, it goes without saying that
they dreamed of reconquering Lower Egypt ,until the time of Seqenenre
Tao I and II and their sons, who realized the dream .
Kamose's son ,
"Ahmose I" probably became ruler of Egypt around 1550 B.C. He was about
the age of 10 when he came to the throne, and he ruled for a period of
about 25 years .
In any event, by now it was the reign of Kamose's
son "Ahmose I", and he offered no compromise. On his stella, Ahmose I
proclaims that he chased the Hyksos out of Egypt, and as far east as the
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