Skip to main content

western facade of the third pylon

western facade of the third pylon was inscribed with five registers of scenes surmounted by a frieze of khakeru that represent the different phases of the Ritual of the Daily Divine Worship, during the reign of Seti I.
On the lower register, for example, the king breaks the clay seals, draws back the bolt, and opens the two sections of the door to heaven.
The king leaving the sanctuary
In the second register, we find the king wearing a headband, a long, pleated linen robe, and a large scarf. In his right hand, he holds a key-of-life shaped vessel, while in the left hand he grasps a bundle of tied straw, which he uses to eradicate the marks of his footprints while turning his back to the neter (god). While the text of this scene is lost to us, we may interpret its meaning from the a temple at Abydos and from the Berlin Papyrus, which in sixty-six chapters, describes the Ritual of the Daily Divine Worship.
In this type of depiction, the king is always represented as officiating in the temple reliefs, though the ritual was actually performed by the "priest on his day", for whom the name signifies pure and who is identified as the king. A statue of the neter was believed to renew the Osirian passion each night. In the morning, after having made his ablutions, the officiating priest who was now purified in mind and body would start the day's ceremony with a purification fire, which was a metaphor for the Eye of Horus. Horus was responsible for driving back the power of Seth and annihilating the enemies of the neter.
In the five vertical columns of the lower register, to the left of Amun-Re Kamutef, we find text with the title, "Chapter on Making the Fire Each Day".
After having made the fire, the priest, acting for the king, would proceed to open up the naos of the temple, which would have been sealed for the night. He would then complete the steps of the complete ritual. After the first part of the ceremony had ended, the service was repeated twice. When the priest leaves the sanctuary, he speaks the words, "I have left, with your great face behind me".
It should be noted that in this scene in the Hypostyle Hall, the ankh shaped vessel is split in half, signifying that only half of the ceremony has been completed
In the third register, we find Seti, still kneeling, but now holding a torch before Amun, who "lights with fire the first day of the year". Then in the fifth register, the kneeling king, who holds the key of life, presents a list of offerings and finally, in the fifth register, Seti I kneels before Amun, who holds a rope rolled up like the hieroglyphic h. Here, the caption reads, "he activates his fire".
These various registers refer to chapters within the Ritual of the Daily Divine Worship. Here, the second register is from the chapter on the lighting of the temple, while the third and fifth registers, respectively, or from the chapters on the New Year's Day torch, and the chapter on the extinguishing of the torch.
Next, we will skip over and examine the front edge of the antechamber attached to the front of the third pylon. These scenes continue the theme of the Daily Divine Worship. At the top of this corner block we find Amun seated on his throne. Below this, the reliefs were decorated in the name of Ramesses II using sunk relief. The next lower register depicts the king on his knees before Ptah. Here, his fist is clenched with only the little finger extended. This gesture is explained by the fact that the officiating priest always puts on a silver or gold fingerstall to anoint the sacred statue.
The priest, representing the king, after having entered the sanctuary, purifies it with incense. Next, he breaks the seal to the doors of the naos, and uncovers the face of the god while uttering the sanctioned words and making the medjet unguent offering. One must remember that the god is supposed to have undergone the dismemberment of his body during the night, just as Osiris was dismembered by Seth. The Berlin Papyrus explains the unction on the forehead with the:
"medjet paint emerges from the Eye of Horus, puts his bones back in place, rejoins his limbs, reassembles his flesh, drives off the evil influences of Seth, and, subsequently, destroys all those who are in his retinue."
The final lower scene in this section depicts the offering of the white vessel to Amun. From here, we will move over to the eastern side of the south wall, were we will see a scene at the top of the wall representing the manufacturing of the young king by Khnum on his potter's wheel. The royal infant is represented alone, whereas in the temple at Luxor he is depicted with his ka.


Popular posts from this blog

How ancient Egyptians Were cutting the Obelisk from the Granite quarry?

Today, quarrymen cut and carve granite using saws with diamond-edged blades and steel chisels.

But ancient Egyptian quarrymen and stonemasons didn't have these modern tools. How, then, did they quarry and cut such clean lines in their obelisks and other monumental statuary?
To find out how ancient Egyptians quarried huge pieces of granite for their obelisks, i traveled to an ancient quarry in Aswan, located 500 miles south of Cairo. This is where the ancient Egyptians found many of the huge granite stones they used for their monuments and statues.

One of the most famous stones left behind is the Unfinished Obelisk, more than twice the size of any known obelisk ever raised. Quarrymen apparently abandoned the obelisk when fractures appeared in its sides. However, the stone, still attached to bedrock, gives important clues to how the ancients quarried granite.

Archeologist Mark Lehner, a key member of nova expedition, crouches in a granite trench that abuts one side of…

Hesi-re, the first Dentist, in ancient Egypt and in the world

Hesire was a high official who lived during the reign of Netjerikhet (Dosjer) 2686 BC to 2613 BC . His tutelary informs us of the many offices he had held during his life. Thus he was the 'overseer of the royal scribes', at the head of the royal administration of Djoser. His most spectacular title, however, was that of the 'greatest (or chief ?)of physicians and dentists'. It is not entirely clear whether this title infers that Hesire himself was honored as the greatest of physicians and dentists, or rather that he was merely responsible for the administration of physicians and dentists. But whatever the case, the distinction between 'physicians' and 'dentists' in his tutelary does show a high degree of medical specialization at this early stage of the history of Ancient Egypt..

Das Tal der Koenige

Die geographische Lage
Das Gebiet bei Theben lieferte ein vorzügliches Gebiet für das Anlegen einer königlichen Nekropole. Vom Westufer des Nils erstreckt sich eine flache Ebene zu einer Bergkette mit zahlreichen abgeschiedenen Tälern, die sich zwischen hohen Klippen und weichem Gestein durchschlängeln. Die Ebene eignete sich ideal für das Errichten der königlichen Totentempel. Die Täler hingegen boten genügend Platz, um viele kunstvoll in den Fels gehauene Gräber anzulegen. Auch aus symbolischen Gründen wählten die Alten Ägypter diesen Platz für das Errichten einer Nekropole. Blickt man von der Stadt Theben über den Nil auf das thebanische Bergmassiv, dann ähnelt es in der Gestalt einer riesigen Version der Hieroglyphe für "Horizont". Es ist das ägyptische Symbol für das Gebiet der auf- und untergehenden Sonne. Im Neuen…