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Amun was the Aurora

Above: Wall relief depicting the 'god of light' (the aurora) Amun offering the symbol of life (ankh) to Ramesses III (guise of Mars). Medinet Habu, Egypt.

Amun, the Egyptian 'king of the gods' was the Aurora

Throughout the Pharaonic period (3,000 years) tons of debris fell into the Sun’s atmosphere resulting in Coronal Mass Ejections, solar flares and prominences on a scale we would find difficult to comprehend. Courtesy of a red Sun this ‘lashing out’ was clearly observed and duly represented by the cobra which spat fire against Egypt’s foes. This being the very reason why the Egyptian Sun was many times depicted with a snake draped over it.

This ‘feeding frenzy’ dramatically increased the solar wind and gave rise to intense geomagnetic storms and global auroras unlike anything experienced in modern times. They were not restricted to the Polar Regions; they were a truly global phenomenon, observed at all latitudes especially during the night and at times, even during the day. The hazed red Sun, once again, granting visibility to the otherwise invisible.

These magical dancing neon lights were personified in the great Egyptian god Amun.

Before we proceed I would like to point out, in my latest book Comet Venus I dedicate over forty pages to physically identifying the Egyptian “king of the gods,” Amun as an auroral phenomenon. This page is to be seen as providing corroboratory support for this. Is is also presumed the reader has a basic understanding of the God King Scenario.

Amun - An Aurora Filled Sky.
Amun (Amen, Amon) was the king of the gods. The name means ‘The Hidden One’.
Amun is most commonly shown entirely in human form. Often he is standing or sitting on a throne wearing a red, flat-topped crown with two tall plumes and holding a sceptre in his hand. Amun can also assume the appearance of a ram, his sacred animal. His sacred colours were blue, red, yellow and green and his images are to be found throughout the Nile Valley.
king-of-the-gods-amun   ancient-egypt-deit-amun-aurora
Two images of Amun sporting two tall plumes or feathers. These are very important for as I will shortly show they are actual physical representations of Auroral lights.

The enormous temple complex of Karnak was the principal home of Amun where he was worshiped as the prominent divine entity. During the New Kingdom, his popularity eclipsed that of other major deities; he was the ‘king of the gods’. The warrior-god Montu was believed to be a manifestation of Amun. A Theban triad consisted of Amun, his wife Mut, and their offspring Khonsu, the moon god. All three had temples at Karnak.
Amun is a god whose attributes are so extensive it lacks the personality of other deities. His role as creator is emphasised in many hymns. He was believed to be self-generated. As a fertility god, he impregnated his mother, the Celestial Cow, to ensure the fecundity of animals and plants. He was closely involved with kingship, and many pharaohs regarded themselves as one of his incarnations and incorporated his name into their own (Tut-ankh-amun).
hatshepsut-image-of-sun-RaAmun was also seen as the divine consort of Egyptian queens ('god's wife of Amun'). Queen Hatshepsut (right) presented herself as an offspring of the god during a visit to her mother. His virile strength made him an appropriate deity for ensuring military victory for the pharaoh. Amun was invoked for healing from the bites of dangerous animals and other illnesses. During the New Kingdom, he was a personal-saviour god of ordinary working people, as numerous devotional stele testify. Amun later became synchronised with Re to become Amun-Re.
Many catastrophist writers have attempted to give physical identity to Amun by placing him in the world of chaos. One of the most widespread identifications is the linking of Amun with Jupiter. This is because Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system and, since Amun was referred to as the ‘king of the gods’, Amun must therefore be Jupiter. This is an unsatisfactory explanation and exhibits a lack of knowledge about the ancient world. How could ancient people possibly know that Jupiter was the largest planet? From Earth it is a mere speck of light in the night sky. It is not even the brightest ‘star’. Excluding the Sun and Moon, the brightest light in the sky is Venus – why wasn’t Venus deemed king of the gods? What of the bright star Saturn or even Mars? If Amun was Jupiter, how do we explain Amun’s tall feathery plumes, his sacred colours, his syncretism with Re (Amun-Re) and epithets such as ‘one whose true form could never be known’? How can any of these apply to Jupiter?
Egyptologists fair no better. They understand Amun’s role in connection with the monarchy, but what is the meaning behind his strange plumes and curious epithets? Their best explanation is to present him as a solar deity – once again they point to the Sun.
The key to physically identifying and understanding Amun lies with his unusual, tall plumes and the colours contained within. They were direct representations of magical celestial lights that were observed the world over in ancient times – a phenomenon we call the Aurora.

The Aurora
The auroras are the Aurora Borealis (Northern Lights) and the Aurora Australis (Southern Lights).
Auroras are striking displays of coloured lights that are often seen over the Earth’s magnetic poles. They occur when the solar wind particles are trapped by the Earth’s magnetic field so they collide with molecules of air in the upper atmosphere (ionosphere). They are a spectacular sight and take the form of rapidly shifting patches of colour and dancing columns of light of various hues. The colours observed depend on several factors such as atmospheric conditions, intensity of the solar wind, temperature and location. The Aurora is always present in almost every area of the sky, but it is usually too faint to be seen except near the North and South Poles. The main colours of the Aurora are blue, yellow, red and green, the very same colours attributed to Amun.
The intensity of the Aurora is dictated by the solar wind, a stream of electrically charged particles from the Sun. When the solar wind blows exceptionally strong, the Aurora increases. The periods of maximum and minimum intensity of the Aurora coincide almost exactly with those of the sunspot cycle, which is an 11-year cycle. When the Sun is in the active phase it can unleash powerful magnetic storms that disable satellites, threaten astronaut safety, and even disrupt communication systems on Earth.
In March 1989, the Sun unleashed a tempest that knocked out power to all of Quebec, Canada, leaving six million people without electricity. Such intense magnetic storms cause spectacular, widespread auroras, even at latitudes as low as Mexico, which is 23 degrees north (similar latitude to Egypt). 
As mentioned above 3,000 years ago, at the height of planetary chaos solar activity was far more intense than anything experienced today. Cosmic catastrophe gave way to intense geomagnetic storms and global auroras - seen at all latitudes day and night. They were observed during the day courtesy of the red Sun which gave rise to a twilight world. These shimmering magical lights were personified in the great god Amun.
The solar wind bombarding Earth’s magnetic field causing the Aurora (below). Note the Sun's cobra 'lashing out.' Such phenomenon was clearly observed 4,000 years ago as dust and debris hazed the Sun red from perspective of earth.

These beautiful photographs above are of the Aurora Borealis or Northern Lights. Image 1 shows the distinctive plumed-shaped aurora coloured red and green with a hint of yellow. Image 2 shows a distinctive plumed-shaped aurora with blue as the main colour supported by green, red and a hint of yellow. Similar plumed aurora are seen below next to Amun on the right.
There are thousands of similar aurora photographs on the web and I have provided many links below. These include homogenous arcs, bands, active arcs, rays, pillars, plumes, draperies (or curtains) and coronas. The key point is that they all display the same basic colours attributed to Amun – blue, red, green and yellow.
We will now examine Amun and his distinctive plumes.

amun-deity-ancient-egypt-auroraThe image on the left (larger one above) depicts Amun in typical form and colours of blue skin, yellow kilt, and red flat-topped crown with tall plumes segmented into sections of green, blue and red. A thin yellow frame separates these colours. Similar images of Amun can be found above and below.
If we compare the photos of the aurora with Amun’s tall plumes, the resemblance is striking – the ancient world was dominated by geomagnetic storms and this was encapsulated in the ‘king of the gods’ Amun.
Sky watching in ancient times would have revealed Hathor (earths rings, celestial cow) arching across the heavens in all her glory. Re, the red Sun, Ptah/Jupiter, Sokar/Saturn and Isis as the main guardians of the ecliptic. While the planets Mars, Venus, Mercury and the Moon took on the role of exhalted god kings - named and renamed many times over, generation after generation as they lived and died to earth battling to maintain ‘divine order’(maat) in the process. However, outranking all of above and more, was the omnipresent Aurora as Amun. Magical, shimmering curtains of coloured neon lights danced across the celestial sphere in the guise of Amun, the ‘king of the gods’. To support this groundbreaking identification, we will examine Amun’s attributes, epithets and his close relationship with the astral monarchy.
Amun’s colours were at times interchangeable. Although his flesh was predominantly blue (his sacred colour), some images reveal a red coloured flesh. His segmented plumes were sometimes coloured yellow or white, as too was his crown. The plumes were often depicted devoid of segments, as in the photograph below, and were painted just one colour, normally yellow or white. Why was this? auroral-lights-neon-aurora-gods
There is nothing complicated here. Any variants in colour reflected the colours seen at the time which could change on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. Sometimes red covered the entire sky, other times blue, green, yellow or a combination of all colours.
The colour of an aurora depends on the type of atom or molecule, according to Hal Kibbey of Indiana University.
"High-altitude oxygen, about 200 miles up, is the source of rare, all-red auroras, Kibbey explains. Oxygen at lower altitudes, about 60 miles up, produces a brilliant yellow-green, the brightest and most common auroral color. Ionized nitrogen molecules produce blue light, and neutral nitrogen glows red. The nitrogens create the purplish-red lower borders and rippled edges of an aurora." (Science Astronomy).
The Egyptians merely reflected what they saw. Please note; all images of Amun were once brightly painted.

Why were there two plumes rather than one or three? The celestial gods and divine kings were, by their very location, associated with Upper and Lower Egypt (heaven and Earth), hence the title ‘lord of the two lands’. Amun’s transitional location was no different, so he too naturally adorned the title ‘lord of the two lands’. There is another possible reason for the wearing of two plumes and this has to do with dust and debris granting visibility to earth's double plumed magnetotail, this is subject for a later date (it's in my book though).
Tutankhamun’s (Mars) restoration stela states:
“May he (Tutankhamun) be given Life, like Re forever and ever, Beloved of Amun Lord of the Two Lands…”
What better way to represent such an exalted position than by placing two of Amun’s auroral plumes atop of his crown. Amun’s flat-topped crown is undoubtedly the crown of Lower Egypt and was adorned by the god due to his close proximity to Earth – he was closer to Earth than almost all other deities.
The name Amun means ‘the hidden one’. This ‘hidden’ aspect is further reflected in Amun’s many epithets. He was:
The great god whose name is unknown’, ‘he, whose name is hidden’, ‘one whose true form could never be known’, ‘He, who hides his name and conceals his image, whose form was not known at the beginning’, and ‘Secret was your body among the elders, and you keep yourself hidden as Amun, at the head of the gods’. (Leiden Papyrus).”
How do we explain such hidden traits? Re was the sun god – an incandescent ball of 'fire' (electricity!) which was an easily recognisable divine body. He illuminated the two lands with his light and was revered because of this. But who or what was responsible for the magical lights of the Aurora? What body or being triggered the transparent, ghostly manifestations? There was no heavenly body – there was an ‘effect’ but, from the Egyptian perspective, no ‘cause’. This is why Amun was known as the ‘hidden one’ and ‘one whose true form could never be known’.
This raises the question: ‘Why was Amun predominately depicted in human form if his true form was not known?’ The Greek philosopher Xenophanes stated that if horses could draw a picture of the divine, it would look like a horse. We have a similar situation here – a blank canvass. The Egyptians were able to choose how they wanted to represent the god responsible for the Aurora and they naturally chose the human form. The auroral colours were captured in his flesh, attire and crown while the Auroras main form, that of pillars, were embodied in the tall plumes. If we take a look at a few more of Amun’s epithets, it becomes apparent that they were alluding to the Aurora:
‘Mysterious of form’   amun-true-form-never-revealed
‘Who raised high the sky’
‘The king of the south and of the north’
‘Prince of rays and beams of light’
‘The flame which sendeth forth rays of light with mighty
‘Living flame who came forth from Nun’
‘King of heaven, ruler of the two lands’
‘Who makes light/gives free passage’
One creator who has millions of forms & transformations’
‘Secret of manifestations and sparkling of shape’
‘Marvellous god rich in forms’
‘Light was his coming into existence on the first occasion’
(Source Leiden papyrus)
Hymn to Amun
“Amun, who developed in the beginning, whose origin is unknown.
No god came into being prior to Him.
No other god was with Him who could say what He looked like.
He had no mother who created His name.
He had no father to beget Him or to sa: "This belongs to me."
Who formed His own egg.
Power of secret birth, who created His (own) beauty.
Most Divine God, who came into being alone.
Every god came into being since He began Himself.
Every being came into being when His being began being.
There is nothing outside Him.”
(Praise of Amun in the Decree for Nesikhonsu)
 "None of the gods knows His true form, His image is not unfolded in the papyrus rolls, nothing certain is testified about Him."
Hymns to Amun, Papyrus Leiden I 350, chapter 200, lines 22- 24.).
In Papyrus Louvre (3292) we also read : "Hail to you, who brought himself forth as one and who created millions in their abundance." In Papyrus Leiden (I 344), we find : "The one alone, whose body are millions" (ibid).
The Omnipresence of the Aurora.

"He, He is the God too great to have a name ! He is the inapparent and He is the very apparent. He who the intellect contemplates ! He is also the one seen by the eyes. He is the incorporeal, the multiform, better still, the omniform. Nothing exists which He is not, for everything that exist, everything is Him. From that comes that He has all names, for all things come forth from this unique father. From that comes that He has no name at all, for He is the father of all things." (ibid)

Amun later became synchronised with Re to become Amun-Re. It is from this merger that scholars have erroneously labelled Amun as a solar deity. Although there is a link with the Sun (light!), it has nothing to do with some of the ideas proposed by some Egyptologists. 
“However, while hidden, the addition to his name of "Re" revealed the god to humanity. Re was the common Egyptian term for the Sun, thus making him visible. Hence, Amun-Re combined within himself the two opposites of divinity, the hidden and the revealed. As Amun, he was secret, hidden and mysterious, but as Re, he was visible and revealed.”

This is confusing and appears to be an attempt to tie Amun in with preconceived ideas. I will offer three explanations for Amun-Re, although a combination of all may apply.
comets-tails-asteriods-ancient-timesFirstly, geomagnetic apparitions were not merely confined to the skies just above Earth. In fact, auroral manifestations were observed, or a least perceived to be on, around or emanating from celestial bodies. This included Mars, Venus, Mercury and the Moon (divine monarchy) in addition to comets and other lesser bodies. They all adorned similar traits to those exhibited by Amun. An interesting point concerns the cometary tails emitted by these bodies. They all produced predominantly blue ionised tails as a result of the solar wind reacting with the gases in the tail (see the diagram on the left). Back then, the Sun, although hazed, was far more electrically active and the solar wind far more intense. This led to highly visible plasma tails appearing to trail countless celestial bodies. Because they were primarily blue in colour (Amun’s sacred colour) and somewhat 'plumed' in shape, a natural association with Amun was made. These ‘Amun tails’ always point away from the Sun. This fact was duly observed and recognised by the Egyptians, resulting in a direct and physical link with the Sun. The traits of Amun were dictated by the solar god Re. This led to the composite god Amun-Re.

Image above right: comet tails, the blue ionised tail (Amun's sacred colour) always points away from the sun.

Amun-Re’s (or Amun’s) rise to pre-eminence was due to events essentially switching Sun-side (daytime). This was a time when the main bodies and their entourage entered Re’s domain (gods land). As with Venus and Mercury, this was a permanent location and they still reside there today. This was a time when the migration of unimaginable quantities of debris fell further into the Sun, thus increasing the solar wind which not only boosted Amun’s prominence as the Aurora but also Amun’s familiar blue tails which emanated from countless bodies – this further gave rise to Amun-Re. These events were clearly observed because the Sun was further hazed red.
The second reason concerns Solar Flares. These are high energy outbursts from the Sun that boost the solar wind and subsequently the Aurora here on Earth. It can take only eight minutes for a solar flare to reach Earth. Due to a hazed red Sun, these golden outbursts (gold was the ‘flesh of the gods’) were clearly seen and it is possible that the effects upon the Aurora (Amun) were duly recognised. It is also possible that the paths, or magnetic currents of solar flares were observed (made visible) due to the countless tons of dust and gasses between the Sun and the Earth.  
Thirdly, it is possible that we are dealing with a mistranslation of the name Amun-Re and it should actually read ‘Amun’s-light’ or ‘the light of Amun’. This is because textually we derive Amun-Re as follows:
Add the hieroglyph for Re Ra-Re-sun-god-egyptian (a disk) to the name Amun  amun-king-of-the gods (imn),
and together they read Amun-Re thus aurora-neon-ights-ancient-egypt
The sign for Re can also mean light or time (Hieroglyphs, Collier p5) So, it is possible to read Amun-Re as ‘Amun’s-light’ or ‘the light of Amun.’ In other words, we have the ‘light of the hidden one’ Amun. While some may disagree, it makes sense to refer to light from the Aurora in this way. Its also possible to read the above as 'Re's light' i.e. the light of the aurora having a direct connection/association with the ultimate light giving source, the sun. I do acknowledge that further research is required here.   

Another more visual reading of Amun-Re concerns the imagery whereby Amun is depicted wearing a solar disk within his plumes (as in the photo on the left). Because all disks (red) represented the Sun, this is perceived to be the composite god Amun-Re. I believe the iconography has little to do with the Sun – the Sun does not have plumes! It is a symbolic representation of planetary bodies appearing amidst Amun’s aurora – in other words the neon lights of Amun protecting the god kings.

Amun and the God Kings Planets
Since the Aurora (Amun) was a transparent phenomenon, Egypt’s other sky gods such as Isis, Hathor and Ptah (ecliptic haze, earths rings, Jupiter resectivly) continued to play their part in giving birth, nurturing and housing the divine monarchy. This situation continued even as the solar wind increased and Amun rose to greater prominence. However, given that Amun now veiled the skies with his magical dancing lights, he superseded all others in sheltering and protecting the monarchy. This manifested itself in a number of ways such as dictating the throne of Egypt and aiding the planetary kings in battle. It is noteworthy that Amun played little part in the afterlife. This is just as would be expected given his close proximity to Earth (Lower Egypt). Amun’s names, titles, epithets and images demonstrated his close and personal relationship with the Egyptian monarchy. 
The name Ramesses Meryamun (mery-amun) translates as ‘Re has Fashioned Him, beloved of Amun’. We can take this to mean exactly as it is stated. For example, Re was the perennial red orb who fashioned Ramesses/Mars, also a red orb (hence, ‘son of Re’). By appearing amidst the intense aurora, it was given the additional very apt title ‘Beloved of Amun.’ This proves that Re and Amun were two separate entities attributed to two separate phenomena. If Amun was linked to the Sun, then the logical name would have been ‘Re has fashioned him, beloved of Re.’ It was not linked in this way which demonstrates that Amun was not a representation of the Sun.god-kings-amun-embrace-egypt
Numerous pharaohs were adorned with the title ‘Beloved of Amun’ or ‘Chosen of Amun’. These were no different to certain other titles linked to other deities. The location and attributes dictated the names given to each planetary body. If they were in conjunction with Ptah/Jupiter they were given the title ‘Chosen’ or ‘Beloved of Ptah’. If they were aligned with the Sun they were ‘Beloved of Re’, or ‘Chosen by Re’. A similar naming pattern applied to all titles where the name of Amun was incorporated. All names should have been associated with the Aurora and the behavioural traits of planetary bodies within. The above ‘beloved’ or ‘chosen’ titles signified that these kings were ‘wrapped-up’ in Amun.
In the image on the right, the astral king (right) embraces Amun (left) in a very close and personal ‘beloved’ relationship. The monarchy are frequently shown embracing Amun in this way. The disk amidst Amun's plumes symbolic of the planetary king amidst the plumed aurora.

Amun and Kingship

Statues of Amun in the form of a ram protecting the Pharaoh (Credit: © Trustees of the British Museum)
The statues on above depict the Aurora enveloping the astral kings – a representation of ‘Chosen by Amun’. Amun’s temple at Karnak is lined with avenues of ram-headed sphinxes that protected the king in this way. It is reasonable to assume the ram was used to represent the ability to protect as well as fertility. I believe the fleece was used to represent a more concentrated form of the Aurora, possibly on the horizon and to the south. The ram’s ability to negotiate cosmic mountains would be another factor.
The Egyptians believed that some kings were created by Amun, such as Pharaoh Amenmesses which translated as ‘Fashioned by Amun’. This was a planetary body (Mars) which was either born amidst the Aurora or a body adorned with auroral traits.
tut's-golden-throne-treasure-egyptTutankhamun was the ‘Living image of Amun’ and this is confirmed by the imagery and Amun’s sacred colour blue. The image on the left is Tutankhamun's throne. The whole scene is one of personified planets and astral events.The flesh is coloured the traditional deep red (red Mars) and the wig is a very unusual, vibrant blue. It is perplexing that experts do not question such elaborate attire and headgear. I propose this is a symbolic representation of Mars with numerous orbiting bodies. The deep red flesh represented red Mars while the vivid blue wig signified Mars at it appeared at the time – it was predominantly blue due to the effects of the solar wind or light refraction.
We have established that blue was the sacred colour of Amun – Tutankhamun/Mars was the ‘living image of Amun’. In a similar vein the name Amenemhet, which was given to a Middle Kingdom pharaoh, translated as ‘Amun is at the head’. Amun is at the head of what? Perhaps the ‘blue’ of Amun was observed at the head of Mars. The name Amenhotep means ‘Amun is pleased’ or ‘Amun at peace’. This title referred to the Aurora as it appeared to be at peace and many pharaohs were named after this phenomenon.
hatshepsut-coronation-god-amun-embraceAccording to ancient Egyptian theology, Amun was the physical father of the king. The Pharaoh and Amun enjoyed a symbiotic relationship and the king derived his power from Amun. As ‘Lord of the two crowns,’ it was Amun that gave the kings their authority to reign over Egypt.
Right: The top section of Hatshepsut’s Obelisk from Karnak

I believe the female queen Hatshepsut (‘Just and full of vitality like the Sun’) was identified with Venus, as were 98% of all queens. This identification occurred when Hatshepsut/Venus came so close to Earth that it outsized and outranked all other bodies. Such an exalted position demanded she be worshiped not as queen, but as a king of Egypt, Hatshepsut was depicted as a male wearing the traditional false beard and kilt of Egyptian kings.
The scenes carved on Hatshepsut’s obelisk commemorated the rise of Venus to kingship. The top section depicts the double plumed god Amun (the Aurora) placing the crown of kingship on Hatshepsut/Venus. The scene on the lower left section of the obelisk was second only to Hatshepsut’s coronation and shows Amun and Hatshepsut in what Egyptologists have dubbed ‘God’s wife embrace’. This image represented the Aurora as it ‘embraced’ Venus. For this reason, Hatshepsut had the title ‘She who embraces Amun.’ On the right of the obelisk is an image of Hatshepsut making an offering to the god Horus who was the embodiment of kingship.tuthmosis-warrior-king-karnak-Moon

Left: Obelisk of Tuthmosis III (Credit: Jon Bosworth)
The obelisk on the left bears the cartouches of Egypt’s Napoleon, Tuthmosis III. I believe this king was identified with the Moon (‘born of the lunar god Thoth’). The top registrar depicts Tuthmosis/Moon holding hands with Amun. The lower section depicts the king making an offering to Amun. On the right we can see Amun as he reciprocates by touching the king with the ankh, the symbol for life. This image represented aurora granting life to the astral king.


Seti/Mercury receives royal regalia from Khnum
(Credit: Jon Bosworth)
The image above depicts Seti/Mercury receiving royal regalia from the ram-headed god Khnum (the creator of a person’s double or ka) and Amun. The distinctly unusual headgear worn by Seti/Mercury is very interesting. It signifies that Seti/Mercury was also adorned with cometary plumes and orbiting bodies. It is illogical to propose that earthly kings wore such attire. No examples of any royal crowns have ever been found because they mainly represented the attributes of the astral kings.
The following offering scenes should be taken at face value. Egypt’s astral monarchy collected, shed and dispersed unimaginable quantities of dust and gases over the 3,000 period, especially Mars and Venus. This was naturally perceived as offering such things as food, flowers, scented oils and incense to the gods, in this case Amun.
Stela of Ramesses II, depicting Ramesses/Mars making an offering to Amun (
Ramesses IV (Mars) offering the sign for ma’at (divine order) to Amun (the red dCredit: Wikimedia Commons
Ramesses III (all Mars) offering to Amun (once again the red disk of Mars is placed above the king’s crown)
The inner sanctuary of Ramesses II temple at Abu Simbel
From left to right: Ptah/Jupiter, Amun/aurora Ramesses/Mars and Horakhty (Horus of the horizon).

Ramesses/Mars is shown the same size as the gods because he inhabited the domain of the gods and as such he was a true god among gods.
Amun and Warfare

Egypt was ruled by Amun through the pharaohs – he aided them in battle and kings were given the epithet ‘Amun is his strength.’ Tuthmosis III (Moon) was said to have marched under the banner of Amun, with ‘Amun on his side’. Amun was therefore known as the ‘the king who maketh kings to rule.’
“His majesty (Tuthmosis) commanded to cause to be recorded his victories which his father, Amun, gave to him…”
“His majesty went forth in a chariot of electrum, arrayed in his weapons of war, like Horus, the Smiter, lord of power; like Montu of Thebes, while his father, Amun, strengthened his arms.”
“This army offered acclamations to his majesty! Giving praise to Amun for the victories which he gave to his son (Tuthmosis).”
“….from the first of the victories which he (Amun) gave me, in order to fill his storehouse…”
The following inscription concerns Tuthmosis I (Moon) ‘Universal triumph’ (the dotted line --------- denotes missing word or words)
“I made the boundaries of Egypt as far as that which the sun encircles. I made strong those who were in fear; I repelled the evil from them. I made Egypt the superior of every land --------- favourite of Amun, Son of Re, of his body, his beloved Thutmose (I), Shining like Re, beloved of Osiris, First of the Westerners; Great God, lord of Abydos, ruler of eternity; given life, stability, satisfaction, and health, while shining as King upon the Horus-throne of the living; and joy of his heart, together with his ka, like Re, forever.” (my bold emphasis).”
Note the following concerning Tuthmosis I: ‘I made the boundaries ……. as far as that which the sun encircles’, and ‘Shining like Re.’. These expressions refer to planetary bodies and not humans. Mesopotamian god king planets also adorned similar titles as with the king Narem Suen who was "King of the Universe" and "King of the Four Regions."
"He (Amun) hath given to him the south as well as north, west, and east.”
“I have worked a marvel for thee; I have given to thee might and victory against all countries.”
(Source Breasted Vol II)
The following images depict Amun handing the symbol of invincibility, the khepesh sword to the king.
Seti/Mercury fighting the Hittites
In the picture above, the large figure of Seti is ritually massacring prisoners before Amun (centre) who hands Seti (Mercury) the khepesh sword. Such reliefs recorded incredible battles in the heavens. This image provides a snapshot of Seti/Mercury as he fearlessly charged headlong into countless tons of foreign bodies that threatened to bring the whole universe into chaos. These battles occurred under the protection of the god ‘whose true form could never be known,’ the Aurora/Amun.

The majority of Egypt’s deities were sky gods. Many gods (such as Amun) were depicted caressing and embracing the royal family as part of a very close and personal relationship. Despite this, Egyptologists fail to grasp that heavenly gods and the monarchy were depicted together because they both inhabited the sky – the realm of the gods.
The picture on the left depicts Montu (also Mont, Month, Monthu) the war god

To my knowledge Amun is never shown smiting an enemy. The kings ruled under his authority and he is shown handing them the weapons of war, but he never vanquishes an enemy himself. There were times when the Aurora looked and acted in an aggressive manner (red aurora), which was consistent with the predominantly placid nature of the Aurora. It was the kings who physically smote the enemies of Egypt, not Amun, and in doing so they invoked the warrior god Montu. 
Montu is commonly depicted as a man with the head of a falcon surmounted by a solar disk. He wore the double uraeus with two tall plumes extending vertically behind. He was later associated with the bull cults such as Buchis at Armant, and so he is depicted with the head of a bull and a plumed, red-disked headdress. Another bull sacred to Montu was also worshipped at Medamud and his weapon was the spear.
I regard Montu as the personification of aggression. He represented the military aspects and warring characteristics of the king as he was observed during times of intense geomagnetic storms, hence the wearing of the auroral plumes. Amun was the omnipresent Aurora who granted kingship and the right to govern while the warring traits of planetary bodies within Amun were embodied in the war-god Montu. The following inscription gives us a better understanding of this relationship:
“His majesty went forth in a chariot of electrum, arrayed in his weapons of war, like Horus, the Smiter, lord of power; like Montu of Thebes, while his father, Amon, strengthened his arms.” (Breasted)
This describes three separate sky deities; Horus, the embodiment of kingship and the deity who protected the kings for 3,000 years; Montu, the warring aspect of the kings during intense geomagnetic storms; and the omnipresent Amun who was described as ‘strengthening his arms’ – perhaps indicating that a straight blue cometary tail was observed (or possible numerous ionized tails or 'arms'). 
Many of the more war-like pharaohs referred to Montu, for example Ramesses III (Mars) at Medinet Habu.
“Year 5 under the majesty of Horus: Mighty Bull, extending Egypt, Mighty of sword, strong-armed, slayer of the Tehenu, Wearer of the Double Diadem; Mighty in strength like his father Montu...” (Ibid)
Nessu-Montu lead campaigns against the Bedouins.
 “... I overthrew the strongholds of the nomads as if they had never been. I coursed through the field. I went forth before those who were behind their defences, without my equal therein, by command of Montu, to him who followed the plan of…” (Ibid)
By the New Kingdom, the 18th Dynasty pharaohs, some of whom followed a very military tradition, sought to emulate Montu. For example, the Gebel Barkal Stele of Tuthmosis III, often referred to as the Napoleon of Egypt, describes the king as ‘a valiant Montu on the battlefield’. Later in the New Kingdom, he became so personally identified with Ramesses II that a cult statue bearing the king's throne name, Usermaare Setepenre, and the epithet, ‘Montu in the Two Lands’, was venerated in Ramesses II's honour during his lifetime. When kings such as Ramesses II are referred to as ‘mighty bulls’, they are claiming an association with Montu as his son (source: Touregypt).
Other sky kings incorporated Montu’s name into theirs. For example, Montuhotep which means Montu is content. This is obviously an elusion to the warring aspect of Mars.
Ramesses/Mars subservient to the omnipresent aurora hence the adoption of the common title "beloved of Amun."

Auroral (Amun) manifestations embracing a Pharaonic planet.

Ramesses/Mars offering to the aurora/Amun. Note the disk atop the pharaohs crown - this is disk of Mars. The blue crown reveals Mars also appeared blue. The transparent clothing represents Mars as seen through the haze of dust and debris littering the skies. The traditional red flesh signifies the more common coloured red Mars.

In short we have Mars losing its volatiles amidst the aurora, this personified as the planetary pharaoh offering to aurora/amun. As Mars was torn apart from its once earth like state it would make many volatile 'offerings' to a wide variety of sky gods including the aurora.


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