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Plants and trees

The hieroglyphs of ancient Egypt are often listed in groups of associated glyphs. The following hieroglyphs have been grouped according to the system established by Sir Alan Gardiner and are all depictions of trees and plants.

M1; tree
Phon jAm (also, less often, jmA and jm) Det; tree, sycamore
M2; plant stalks
Phon Det; js, j Phon; Hn Det; flower, plant
M3; twig
Phon ht Det and Log; wood
M4; palm stalk
Phon Det; rnp Log; year
M5; palm stalk with a small loaf
Phon Det; tr, tj, rj Log; a certain time
M6; palm stalk with the sign for a mouth
Phon Det; tr, tj, rj Log; a certain time
M7; palm stalk with a stool
Phon Det; rnp, only in "to be young" (rnpj) Log; to be young
M8; lotus pool
Phon SA Log; akhet (season)
 M9; lotus flower
Phon; nfr (rare) Det and Log; lotus
M10; lotus bud
Det; lotus bud
M11; lotus bud on a bent stalk
Det and Log; to sacrifice
M12; lotus plant
Phon; hA Abbr; 1,000
M13; cobra sitting on a basket
Phon; wAD, wD Log; papyrus
M14; papyrus plant and snake
Phon; wAD, wD
M15; bunch of papyrus
Det and Log; lower Egypt, papyrus swamp
M16; bunch of papyrus
Phon; HA Det and Log; lower Egypt
M17; reed leaf
Phon; i Log; sedge, reed, I
M17a; two reed leaves
Phon; y
M18; reed leaf with legs
Log; come
M19 leaf and club tied together
Det and Log; sacrifice
M20; reed swamp
Phon; sm Log; land, meadow
M21; reed swamp and noose
Phon; sm Log; weed, plant
M22 rush leaf
Phon; nhb
M22a ; two rush leaves
Phon; nn
M23; su plant
Phon; sw Log; su rush, king
M24; su plant and mouth
Phon; rs(w) but only in words denoting "south"
M25; sedge and mouth
Phon; rs(w) but only in words denoting "south"
M26; sedge
Phon; Sma
M27; sedge and arm
Phon; Sma Log; upper Egypt
M28; sedge and animal fetter
Abbr; upper Egypt
M29; sweet pea pod
Phon; nDm
 M30; sweet root
Det and Log; sweet
M31; lotus root stalk
Det; to grow
M32; lotus root stalk
Det; to grow
M33; grains of corn
Det and Log; corn, barley, grain
M34; an ear of emmer
Det and Log; emmer
 M35; heap of corn
Det; heap, pile
M36; a bale of flax
Phon; Dr
M37; a bale of flax
Phon; Dr
M38; a bale of flax
Det; flax, to tie together
M39; basket of fruit
Det; an offering (of fruit, vegetables or plants)
M40; bundle of sedge reeds
Phon; js Log; reed
 M41; fragrant wood
Det; juniper, imported wood
M42; flower
Phon; wn Abbr; eat
M42a; flower
Phon; wng
M43; grapevine
Det; wine, fig, fruit
M44 Phon; ww
Det; thorn, pointed, acute


Abb; the sign is an abbreviation of a word,
Det; the sign acts as a determinative (it has no phonetic value, but provids further information about the full word),
Log; the sign is a logogram (it represents an entire word or idea),
Phon; the sign has a phonetic value, and
Phon Det; the sign is a phonetic determinant (it acts as a determinative but also has a phonetic value).


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