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Egypt Nile -Agriculture &irrigation system

Egypt Nile -Agriculture &irrigation system



Egypt has a soil of sand, and as we have already said, depends on the annual overflow of the Nile for its fertility. In the dry season, to supply gardens and fields with water, pumps of various sorts are used. The "Shadoof" is a very ancient invention for raising water. It consists of "two posts about five feet high and three feet apart, connected at the top by a horizontal bar; across this is a branch of a tree having at one end a weight composed of mud, and at the other suspended to it by two palm sticks, a bucket made of basket work or matting or of a hoop with wooden stuff or leather." One man may work this machine and lift water as much as six or eight feet by it. He may keep on the whole day bowing and rising as he works, doing it all in graceful fashion. (Source: Earthly Footsteps of the Man of Galilee, p. 46.)

 Around 6000 BC Agriculture appeared in Egypt , when historical studies showed that the citizens of the towns; Meredeh Beni Salama and Fayoum knew the arts of Agriculture in 5500 BC, Egyptian Agriculture has been linked to the River Nile.

The main crops planted by ancient Egyptians are wheat and barley cultivation of the Egyptians Tan and some legumes such as chickpeas, lentils, beans, Thermoses and many vegetables such as onions, lettuce and garlic, they also succeeded in cultivating many kinds of fruit such as figs and pomegranates, pears, grapes and palm, papyrus, Acacia, Lotus indigo, Kharroub, robin, Roses, the arena , berries, mint, Dom, clover, Zatar, Jasmine, cinnamon, saffron Wa Collard, watermelon, peach, Ebony and oak, this shows the progress and the importance of agriculture for anciant Egyptians.

Agriculture in Egypt maintains its character, many of the customs and traditions is still practiced in the Egypt Nowadays, due to the fact that agricultural groups maintain the past and this is highly correlated to the nature of the agriculture in the valley of the Nile. 











The Locks were another making of the Egyptians. These were made to prevent the endless robberies. They made a wooden crossbar that was almost entirely enclose except for some space for the key and the pins. They dropped these pins into cavities, which locked the door. To unlock it, they slid the key into the opening, which pushed the pins out of the way, enabling the door to open.


The Ox-drawn Plow: The Ox-drawn plow was an invention that not only revolutionized the way agriculture was carried on in the Egyptian communities, but a modified version of it is still used by farmers of backward countries who cannot afford machines to plow their fields. Using the power of oxen to pull the plow, made loosening the soil much easier and faster than doing it with hands or using human beings to pull the plow.



Agriculture in ancient Egypt required only a few basic tools: plows, hoes, sickles, baskets, forks, and scoops. Hoes, such as this one, were used in breaking dirt clods formed during plowing and for tending the growing crops. The ancient Egyptians also used hoes to move dirt during building or brick making. This hoe is made from two pieces, a handle and a blade, that were fitted together and then bound with a rope. The binding of modern rope that now holds both parts together is based on original attachments known from other hoes. The object does not show signs of heavy use. Its excavation at Deir el-Bahri and its lack of wear patterns suggest that this hoe was used to mix water and dirt for mud brick.

Egyptologists do not know much about farmers' lives beyond their daily tasks in the fields. As members of the lower class, full-time farmers were illiterate and, therefore, did not have the education or income to leave behind their personal histories. Farmers endured a hard but secure life, since serious deprivation appears to have been an uncommon circumstance. All farming was done by hand with the occasional use of cattle to pull plows. On small private farms, most family members were involved in agricultural activities; women are seen in tomb paintings gleaning the fields during harvest. A large number of farmers, however, worked on estates owned by others and were paid in food and clothing. Some farmers rented land from wealthier people, giving a portion of the harvest in payment to the landowner.

It appears likely that most of Egypt's adult population spent some time farming. Although there were full-time farmers, during and immediately following inundation most men were drafted through corvée (forced labor by the government as taxation) to increase the personnel available for dredging irrigation canals, surveying land boundaries, and preparing the ground for planting. Avoidance of corvée carried stiff penalties for the individual and sometimes his family. Noblemen and scribes, the literate upper class, were the only people consistently excluded from the corvée. Most noblemen were automatically involved in the agricultural system, however, because they owned farms and supervised royal or temple agricultural land.
Relief of a harvest scene from the mastaba of Ipi.
Saqqara, Egypt; Old Kingdom (5th dynasty). (c) Photograph by Erich Lessing
 Cattle inspection. Terracotta scale model about 3000 BCE Old Kingdom, Egypt
Egyptian Museum, Cairo, Egypt Cattle inspection. Terracotta scale model about 3000 BCE Old Kingdom, Egypt (c) Photograph by Erich Lessing.
 The flocks on the temple grounds. Relief from the Akhnaton temple project in Karnak. 1350 BCE, New Kingdom Height: 17 cm
Franco-Egyptian Center, Karnak, Egypt
The flocks on the temple grounds. Relief from the Akhnaton temple project in Karnak. 1350 BCE, New Kingdom Height: 17 cm (c) Photograph by Erich Lessing
 Farmers winnowing grain. Detail of a wallpainting in the tomb of Nakht, scribe and priest under Pharaoh Thutmosis IV (18th Dynasty, 16th-14th BCE), in the cemetery of Sheikh Abd al-Qurnah.
Tombs of Nobles, Luxor-Thebes, Egypt
Farmers winnowing grain. Detail of a wallpainting in the tomb of Nakht, scribe and priest under Pharaoh Thutmosis IV (18th Dynasty, 16th-14th BCE), in the cemetery of Sheikh Abd al-Qurnah. (c) Photograph by Erich Lessing.
 Men transporting corn. In the background slave girls fighting for the left-overs. Detail of a wallpainting in the tomb of Mennah, scribe of the fields and estate inspector under Pharaoh Thutmosis IV (18th Dynasty, 16th-14th BCE) in the cemetery of Sheikh Abd al-Qurnah
Men transporting corn. In the background slave girls fighting for the left-overs. Detail of a wallpainting in the tomb of Mennah, scribe of the fields and estate inspector under Pharaoh Thutmosis IV (18th Dynasty, 16th-14th BCE) in the cemetery of Sheikh Abd al-Qurnah. (c) Photograph by Erich Lessing


Men trampling grapes, one racking must. Detail of a wallpainting in the tomb of Nakht, scribe and priest under Pharaoh Tuthmosis IV (18th Dynasty, 16th- 14th BCE),
Men trampling grapes, one racking must. Detail of a wallpainting in the tomb of Nakht, scribe and priest under Pharaoh Tuthmosis IV (18th Dynasty, 16th- 14th BCE), in the cemetery of Sheikh Abd al-Qurnah. (c) Photograph by Erich Lessing.


Men cutting corn with sickles. Detail of a wallpainting in the tomb of Mennah, scribe of the fields and estate inspector under Pharaoh Thutmosis IV (18th Dynasty, 16th-14th BCE), in the cemetery of Sheikh Abd al-Qurnah.
Men cutting corn with sickles. Detail of a wallpainting in the tomb of Mennah, scribe of the fields and estate inspector under Pharaoh Thutmosis IV (18th Dynasty, 16th-14th BCE), in the cemetery of Sheikh Abd al-Qurnah. (c) Photograph by Erich Lessing
Labours of the field. Clearing wood, plowing, etc. Mural from the tomb of Mennah, scribe and field inspector, 18th Dynasty (1555-1350 BCE
Labours of the field. Clearing wood, plowing, etc. Mural from the tomb of Mennah, scribe and field inspector, 18th Dynasty (1555-1350 BCE), New Kingdom, Shaykh Abd el-Qurna, Thebes, Egypt. (c) Photograph by Erich Lessing
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Rosselini's copy of an 18th Dynasty painting showing an Egyptian drawing water

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