Hundreds of garments and other textiles were found inside the tomb of Tutankhamun. Beside simple rolls of cloth and plain tunics, the tomb produced elaborate garments, sometimes decorated with fayence and gold. This collection of textiles is the only surviving royal wardrobe of the pharaonic period.
The Tutankhamun Textiles & Clothing Project
Howard Carter was aware of the importance of the textiles of Tutankhamun, but in the years after the discovery of the tomb in 1922 he never found time to make a detailed study. During ten years the tomb was gradually cleared and notes were made about every object found. In addition to numerous drawings and descriptions in diaries, more than 2500 record cards and over 1500 photographs were made by Carter and his team.
This material provided the basis of a detailed study started in 1993 by a team of the Egyptology department of the Leiden University led by Dr. G.M. Vogelsang-Eastwood, with the support of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.
Sails, tunics and leopard skins types of textiles
The number of textiles in the tomb was impressive; over 740 garments, shrouds, covers of statues and textile objects like quivers and sails of boats models were found. Probably quite a few of textiles were stolen during the looting of the tomb, shortly after the burial. This explains the seemingly excessive number of loincloths: precious garments like royal tunics and sashes were taken away by the looters. It was not only the gold decoration of the garments which attracted the robbers. The linen of many tunics and sashes was extremely fine woven. With over fifty threads per centimeter, the decorative pattern of one of the surviving tunics
The textiles found in KV 62
1 royal jacket
1 cuirass/leather scale armor
6(+2) pair of gloves
2(+2) pair of socks
4(+1) guards/archer’s pads
4+ leopard skins
1 portable pavilion
1 large pall
1 horse housing
3 sails of boat models
106 wrappings and covers of statues and other objects
316 rolls, masses of decayed cloth, box linings, chariot linings (x)=number of uncertain identification
has been described as "painted".
One of the most mysterious objects encountered during the research of the textiles, were short tubes of linen, with a pair of bird wings attached to it. Carter examined these textiles only shortly and described them in his notes as 'some kind of headgear'. In many depictions of the pharaoh, protective wings are worn across the chest. In all these cases however, the body of the bird, mostly a falcon, can be seen slightly above the hips. It is unclear how these "falcons" are fastened to the body.
The wings found in the tomb of Tutankhamun were worn in pairs, the body of the birds resting on the shoulders, and with the wings across the chest and back. The tube section was in fact a short sleeve. Most likely the heads, and part of the bodies, of the birds were covered by a collar. The conventions of the pharaonic art demand a complete as possible depiction of people, animals and objects, and especially important figures as kings, gods and protective birds like the falcon. This explains why these winged garments were shown lower on the body in the paintings and reliefs.
Today, quarrymen cut and carve granite using saws with diamond-edged blades and steel chisels.
But ancient Egyptian quarrymen and stonemasons didn't have these modern tools. How, then, did they quarry and cut such clean lines in their obelisks and other monumental statuary? To find out how ancient Egyptians quarried huge pieces of granite for their obelisks, i traveled to an ancient quarry in Aswan, located 500 miles south of Cairo. This is where the ancient Egyptians found many of the huge granite stones they used for their monuments and statues.
One of the most famous stones left behind is the Unfinished Obelisk, more than twice the size of any known obelisk ever raised. Quarrymen apparently abandoned the obelisk when fractures appeared in its sides. However, the stone, still attached to bedrock, gives important clues to how the ancients quarried granite.
Archeologist Mark Lehner, a key member of nova expedition, crouches in a granite trench that abuts one side of…
was a high official who lived during the reign of
Netjerikhet (Dosjer) 2686 BC to 2613 BC
. His tutelary informs us of the many offices he
had held during his life.
Thus he was the 'overseer of the royal scribes', at
the head of the royal administration of Djoser.
His most spectacular title, however, was that of the
'greatest (or chief ?)of physicians and dentists'. It is not
entirely clear whether this title infers that Hesire himself was honored as the greatest of physicians and dentists, or rather that he
was merely responsible for the administration of physicians and
dentists. But whatever the case, the distinction between 'physicians'
and 'dentists' in his tutelary does show a high degree of medical specialization at this early stage of the history of Ancient Egypt..
Die geographische Lage
Das Gebiet bei Theben lieferte ein vorzügliches Gebiet für das Anlegen einer königlichen Nekropole. Vom Westufer des Nils erstreckt sich eine flache Ebene zu einer Bergkette mit zahlreichen abgeschiedenen Tälern, die sich zwischen hohen Klippen und weichem Gestein durchschlängeln. Die Ebene eignete sich ideal für das Errichten der königlichen Totentempel. Die Täler hingegen boten genügend Platz, um viele kunstvoll in den Fels gehauene Gräber anzulegen. Auch aus symbolischen Gründen wählten die Alten Ägypter diesen Platz für das Errichten einer Nekropole. Blickt man von der Stadt Theben über den Nil auf das thebanische Bergmassiv, dann ähnelt es in der Gestalt einer riesigen Version der Hieroglyphe für "Horizont". Es ist das ägyptische Symbol für das Gebiet der auf- und untergehenden Sonne. Im Neuen…