Abu Simbel is the location of the most famous temple of Ramses II. The most spectacular aspect of this temple is its setting in the solid rock above the banks of the Nile River between the First and Second Cataracts. As impressive as Abu Simbel is, it probably would not be quite as famous were it not for its relocation because of the construction of the Aswan High Dam.
Between January 1966 and September 1968, the restoration work crews carved the temples into over a thousand pieces. Some of the blocks weighed as much as 30 tons a piece. They were removed and raised over 200 feet. The pieces were then reassembled on an artificial hill above the reach of Lake Nasser.
Ramses II built the Great Temple to honor himself and the gods of the state. The four seated statues of Ramses are about 20 meters in height. At the feet of Ramses stand the statues of his favorite children. Many stelae were found at the southern end of the temple, including the famous Marriage Stela. This stela describes the arrival of the Hittite princess to Egypt to marry Ramses following the treaty with the Hittites.
Inside the temple, eight Osiride statues of Rameses II are attached to pillars and support the roof. The sun shines on Ramses II’s statues only two days out of each year: Oct 22 and Feb 22. These two days were his birthday and his coronation day. Today there are big celebrations at the temple on these two days.
Battle of Kadesh
The walls depict scenes which show Ramses’ greatness in battle. Ramses was particularly proud of his victory at the battle of Kadesh and depicted this on numerous monuments including this temple. Scholars today believe this battle with the Hittites was a stalemate.
Temple of Hathor
The Temple of Hathor is to the north of the Great Temple. It depicts Ramses II’s first queen Nefertari on the facade between statues of her husband. The inside of this temple shows Nefertari participating in the divine ritual in the same capacity as her husband. The holy of holies features a statue of the goddess Hathor represented as a cow.
Today, quarrymen cut and carve granite using saws with diamond-edged blades and steel chisels.
But ancient Egyptian quarrymen and stonemasons didn't have these modern tools. How, then, did they quarry and cut such clean lines in their obelisks and other monumental statuary? To find out how ancient Egyptians quarried huge pieces of granite for their obelisks, i traveled to an ancient quarry in Aswan, located 500 miles south of Cairo. This is where the ancient Egyptians found many of the huge granite stones they used for their monuments and statues.
One of the most famous stones left behind is the Unfinished Obelisk, more than twice the size of any known obelisk ever raised. Quarrymen apparently abandoned the obelisk when fractures appeared in its sides. However, the stone, still attached to bedrock, gives important clues to how the ancients quarried granite.
Archeologist Mark Lehner, a key member of nova expedition, crouches in a granite trench that abuts one side of…
was a high official who lived during the reign of
Netjerikhet (Dosjer) 2686 BC to 2613 BC
. His tutelary informs us of the many offices he
had held during his life.
Thus he was the 'overseer of the royal scribes', at
the head of the royal administration of Djoser.
His most spectacular title, however, was that of the
'greatest (or chief ?)of physicians and dentists'. It is not
entirely clear whether this title infers that Hesire himself was honored as the greatest of physicians and dentists, or rather that he
was merely responsible for the administration of physicians and
dentists. But whatever the case, the distinction between 'physicians'
and 'dentists' in his tutelary does show a high degree of medical specialization at this early stage of the history of Ancient Egypt..
Die geographische Lage
Das Gebiet bei Theben lieferte ein vorzügliches Gebiet für das Anlegen einer königlichen Nekropole. Vom Westufer des Nils erstreckt sich eine flache Ebene zu einer Bergkette mit zahlreichen abgeschiedenen Tälern, die sich zwischen hohen Klippen und weichem Gestein durchschlängeln. Die Ebene eignete sich ideal für das Errichten der königlichen Totentempel. Die Täler hingegen boten genügend Platz, um viele kunstvoll in den Fels gehauene Gräber anzulegen. Auch aus symbolischen Gründen wählten die Alten Ägypter diesen Platz für das Errichten einer Nekropole. Blickt man von der Stadt Theben über den Nil auf das thebanische Bergmassiv, dann ähnelt es in der Gestalt einer riesigen Version der Hieroglyphe für "Horizont". Es ist das ägyptische Symbol für das Gebiet der auf- und untergehenden Sonne. Im Neuen…