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TT31, the tomb of Khonsu , also called To (or Ta) .in the valley of the nobles-luxor -thebe

North wall

This is divided in two registers, the upper being the larger, each dedicated to one of the activities of Khonsu. At the top, Khonsu is in the setting of his journey to the temple of Thutmosis III, whilst below, he is in his function of livestock supervisor in the temple of Thutmosis IV.
A large "sky" hieroglyph separates the upper register from the frieze. The frieze is damaged at its upper level, but what remains still retains much of its colour. The design content is the same as that of the south wall

Once again this contains a main transport vessel (on the right), but this time it is towed by only one other vessel (on the left).

a) - The barques

This is very similar to that of Montu on the south wall. However, here the barques float on a canal of the Nile, which ends in a "T" shaped landing stage at the door of the temple, which is represented by the two white pillars of entry pylon, whose summits bear the name of Thutmosis III. In the middle of the doorway is a small scene showing the Pharaoh adoring Amon

• The barque of Thutmosis III, to right of the towing vessel, is of a very simple shape, with the bow and stern ending in a papyrus umbel. Under a golden wood kiosk stands the Pharaoh's statue which has been dressed and decorated. The king has the blue crown with a double uraeus and clutches a club in his left hand and his staff in the other. In front of him is "The high-priest of Thutmosis III, Khonsu", dressed in the clothing of a priest, and with shaven skull. He makes a libation and incensement to the statue. Tall bouquets stand in front and behind the kiosk, behind which stands the small figure of the goddess Nephthys, whilst behind Khonsu stands the goddess Isis. Behind Isis is a mat with a dead ox and haunch placed on it. In front of her is an image of a standard surmounted by a lion with the head of the pharaoh, his head mounted with the double Ma'at-feather.
[Nb.: A special article has been dedicated to royal cult statuary: "The royal representations in Theban tombs of the Ramesside period", well worth reading].

• The towing barque (. As previously, the main vessel (right) doesn't have a crew, and this time it is towed by only one.
The towing vessel, which guides the other, is again a military one. It is attached by a rope (in an unrealistic manner) to the bow of the sacred boat and wrapped around the rudder of the towing one. This portrayed extremely loose and held by the man at the stern. The stern and prow are decorated with the falcon-headed Montu and the ram-headed Amon, on a yellow background. The central part of the hull of the boat has remained in its natural state, still showing the knots and grain of the wood, indicating that he boat was plank-built. The captain's case, at the left end of the craft, is decorated with yet another copy of the lion with the head of the pharaoh. Behind it is a standard with a feather of Ma'at on top of a rectangular emblem, decorated possibly (according to Davies) with the name Useramon or possibly a rebus in the name of Ramesses II. The officer is "the standard-bearer of the great regiment of Menmaatre (i.e. Sethos I), Usermontu". This man offers a burnt offering to the deified king, in front of a pile of offerings heaped on a pedestal. Five sailors, with expressionless faces, propel the boat towards the temple.

After having disembarked, the statue of the divine Pharaoh is received by priests, chantresses and mourners. These are portrayed in two areas  In the sub-register above the boats are the priests, below the boats (full length of the register) are the chantresses, left, and mourners, right.

b) - Upper sub-register: the priests

They number eight in total, all being members of the Khonsu family, which shows the influence that he had on the temple. They all look alike and all look like those already seen, except the two first, the most important, who don't have the panther skin, but have a white strap across the chest and a white fringed belt, tied around their waist and extending down the front of their long white kilt. The first is the "Wab-priest (purifying priest) of Thutmosis III, Khay", he holds a censer and a libation vase. The second is the "Wab-priest of Thutmosis III, Khaemwaset", he holds two vases, one of which is ankh shaped.

The other six  make encensement and libation, or bring vases and bouquets. These are, from right to left: "High-priest of Amenophis II, Neferbotep" (the father of Khonsu), "His son, the high-priest (of the cult) of Thutmosis I, Nay", "His son, the high-priest (of the cult) of Thutmosis I, Iuy", "His son, the lector-priest of king [Amenhotep II?], Mont[uhotep]", "[His son ... ...] of Amenhotep II, To" and finally "His son, the high-priest of Sobek, Usermontu".

c) - Bottom sub-register: chantresses and mourners

• Left-hand side

A small building decorated with the cartouches of Thutmosis III and containing a pile of offerings waits for the statue and its porters. To its left, the first woman holds up her left hand in greeting and holds a stem of papyrus and a Hathoric sistrum in the other. She is identified as "(the leader) of those who bewail, [...], the chantress of Amon, Mutia". Behind her, after the embankment, under which are more offerings, she is followed by the "Chantress of Montu Tauseret" and "His daughter, the chantress of Montu, Tentiunet, daughter of Tauseret". All three are portrayed in the same attitude.

• Right-hand side
Here, the five women on the left, who have come from the temple, act as mourners for the dead king, wailing and pouring dust on their hair. The names of only three have survived, they are: "His daughter, Maia", "His daughter, Useri" (these could possibly be the daughters of Tauseret or Mutia) and "Maany, daughter of Tentiunet".
The group which are arriving, who come with the procession, start with two priestesses who have their arms folded in front of them, of which at least one is the daughter of Maany. Among the other names which have survived are: "Taysen", "Maia", "Urnero" and "Henutneferet".

 2) - Lower register: inspection of livestock of the temple of Thutmosis IV 

(See bottom of  It is strange to find here this scene, because it could be considered as taken from a tomb of the 18th Dynasty. It is not about proof of usurpation, because Eva Hofmann showed that the scene is of archaic inspiration, and is integrated into the whole of the decoration.
The total register can be divided in two parts. On the left, divided into two sub-registers, the employees of the domain bring livestock in front of the supervisor. On the right, Khonsu-To and his family members supervise the operation.

a) - Khonsu and his family

It was certainly not a talented painter who worked here. Besides the elongated exaggeration of the boy's body, a Ramesside feature already seen, the arms of the characters are ridiculously thin and badly proportioned, the faces are expressionless.
Khonsu is seated, with members of his family, inside a small pavilion build from green timber, watching herdsmen bringing various animals towards him. He is clothed in a large tunic over which the artist has created an unlikely front-piece. His left hand holds a sekhem sceptre, the right is stretched in front of him, above a plaque on a pole on which can be seen Ma'at in front of the name of Thutmosis IV, Menkheperure, in a cartouche. The naming group probably representing the name of an agricultural domain. Khonsu's naked feet rest on a mat or a footrest. In front of him is a small text, in five columns, containing his address to the drovers who are in front of him: "The supervisor of the livestock of Thutmosis IV, To, justified. He says: 'May Montu show you favour. The animals of the god are thriving. Bring this calf to the temple' ".
Behind him, seated on a chair placed slightly lower, to suggest perspective, is "His wife Ruia". The name is not preceded by the usual epithet "the mistress of house". The representation is especially clumsy: false proportions, arms too, a dress which looks like a bag, an ordinary face. Ruia is pictured in the usual attitude of the wife, surrounding her husband's shoulders with her two arms.
Standing behind her is seen a son of Khonsu, surmounted by the text: "His son, the purifying priest of Montu, Montuhotep, justified". Resting on a cushion, placed on the floor, below her mother's chair is "His daughter, the chantress of Montu, Wiay".

b) - The drovers and their herds


This is displayed on two superimposed sub-registers, in open air, as testified by the presence of trees. "Kaka" and "Nefersekheru" are the foremen, seen at the right-hand side, in front of the pavilion in which Khonsu is seated. They kneel as if "smelling the land" with their heads touching it. In front of each is a plaque, the same as the one placed in front of Khonsu. Davies points out that, especially on the upper register, cows, oxen and calves are almost reduced to the state of caricature, but, he adds with wisdom, "since Mont, To, and the artist were pleased with them, we ought not to be critical".
Before proceeding, reference should be made to the last two characters of the upper sub-register, of which fortune has provided an excellent sized photograph . The first holds a yolk (a long pole) on the left shoulder, from which are suspended small jars by their handles. He also holds a coiled rope on the bend of the same arm. With the right hand, he holds a stick with which he strikes the rear end of a white cow, which in response turns its head towards him. This animal probably stopped because its calf was sucking from its udder. His companion, who walks behind him, also carries a yolk on the left shoulder with, at one extremity, a net containing a large jar. At the other end, and also supported by his right hand, possibly because of the weight, hangs a jar and a green object. Two thin dogs, with extended tails, follow each of the men, one each.

The rear part of the underlying sub-register is a little confusing. Behind the cattle, which are pictured behind the kneeling man on the right, follow two herds of goats. Between the two parts of the sub-register, a man has almost disappeared. These "small livestock", typical of Egyptian display, possess varied horns, straight, hooked and twisted. A billy-goat tries to pair off with a female one. Behind the animals, two men pass in front of a tree. The first, who seems much taller than the other, holds a yolk on his left shoulder with, at one extremity, a net which contains a crock and what hangs from the other is unknown. With his right hand, he clutches a stick with which he directs the herd. His smaller work-mate holds a stick in his right hand, and hold the yolk on his left shoulder with the other. One of the nets which are attached contains a crock and the other a small calf, which is perhaps the one which Khonsu asks him to bring to the temple. This is difficult to see in the photograph, but is better seen using the drawing of Davies (, indicated by the red arrow). Behind him is a dog similar to the two preceding ones.


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